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食用海产品中微粒塑料对人体健康影响巨大

How Much Microplastic Is Found in Fish Fillets?

鱼片中含有多少微粒塑料?
“How Much Microplastic Is Found in Fish Fillets?”
水生环境中的微粒塑料污染
Microplastic pollution of our waterways
不仅给海洋生态带来危险
may not just represent a threat to marine ecosystems,
而且对人类的健康有害
but also to human health.
很明显 我们通过海鲜接触到了很多微粒塑料污染物
It’s evident we’re exposed to microplastic pollutants in seafood,
这可能会造成食品安全风险
which may create a food safety risk,
但是否有相对受污染较少的海鲜呢?
but is there some seafood less contaminated than others?
有研究首先关注了软体动物
The first published study looked at mollusks.
平均每吃掉一份(250克湿重)软体动物
Eating an average serving of mollusks
就会吸收大约90个塑料颗粒
you consume around 90 plastic particles,
然而平均每份(100g湿重)牡蛎包含大约50个塑料颗粒
whereas an average serving of oysters may contain only around 50.
因此 欧洲贝类消费者年食微塑颗粒暴露量
As a result, the annual dietary exposure for European shellfish consumers
达到每年11000个颗粒
can amount to 11,000 swallowed microplastics per year,
尽管我们还不知道这会带来什么风险
though we don’t yet know what kind of risk this would carry.
由于微粒塑料颗粒的持久性
Of course, due to their persistent nature,
海洋环境中微塑颗粒含量越来越高
microplastic abundance is only going to get worse.
人类消费海鲜必然会吸收一些微塑颗粒
It is inevitable that humanseating seafood will ingestat least some microplastics,
尤其是整个生物被吞食后
particularly when the entire creature is consumed,
比如贻贝 牡蛎 小鱼儿 还有 象沙丁鱼
such as mussels, oysters, and smallfish, so, what, like sardines?
我们现在才知道
We didn’t know… until now.
污染物中有微塑料颗粒和中塑料颗粒
Contamination withmicroplastics and mesoplastics,
中塑料颗粒是指直径略大于1毫米的颗粒
which are like little pieces of plastic larger than a millimeter.
研究人员观测了来自四大洲十三国
They looked at 20 brands of canned sardines
20个品牌的沙丁鱼罐头
from 13 countries over four continents
发现每5个沙丁鱼罐头中仅有一个含塑料颗粒
and only found plastic particles in about one in five.
他们提出差异可能是由
They suggested the disparity may have been
提取受污染样品内脏的方法不同造成的
due to improper gutting in the contaminated samples.
但是吸收的微塑颗粒至少能够穿过哺乳动物的肠壁
But in mammals, at least, ingested microplastics can get through the gut wall
并在其体内循环流动
and circulate throughout the body
甚至穿过了胎盘这道屏障
and even cross the placental barrier.
因此 微塑颗粒确实穿透
So, do microplastics actually make it
进入鱼的肌肉了吗?
into the muscles of the fish,
像鱼片一样吗?
like a fish fillet?
让我们一起看看
Let’s find out.
如果你比较去内脏的肉和器官中微粒塑料的水平
If you compare the level ofmicroplastics in eviscerated flesh
令人惊奇的是 有时肉确实比切除的器官
versus the organs, surprisingly,sometimes the flesh
包含的微粒塑料多
actually contained higher microplasticloads than the excised organs,
这表示消费者们没有必要取出内脏
which highlights that evisceration does not necessarily
来排除吸收微塑颗粒的危险性
eliminate the risk of microplastic intake by consumers.
各种颜色 形状和大小的微塑颗粒
Microplastics of all colors, shapes, and sizes
在所有被调查的鱼类肌肉样本中都有检测到
were detected in all investigated fish muscle samples.
他们确实会进入肉中
So, they do actually get into the flesh.
食用平头鱼 石斑鱼
So, the average intake of microplastics from eating flathead, grouper,
虾 竹荚鱼 梭鱼的微塑颗粒平均摄入量
shrimp, scad, or barracuda may be
可能每300克食物中有几百个
in the hundreds per 300 gram serving or just
或者一份两盎司儿童套餐里有几十个
in the dozens of plastic particles in a two-ounce child serving.
除去塑料本身 这些颗粒还会释放出被吸收的污染物
Besides the plastic itself, the particles may release
比如多氯联苯
absorbed pollutants like PCBs,
也会释放出塑料化学添加剂
and also release plastics chemical additives
比如双酚A 它们会导致激素紊乱
like BPA, which collectively may cause
癌变风险 DNA损伤
hormone disruption, cancer risk, and DNA damage.
因此 尽管对微塑颗粒的摄入
Hence, although there is no standard
没有标准的耐受剂量
like tolerable dose for microplastics ingestion,
也没有不同塑料类型在人体中确切毒性的信息
as well as information on exact toxicity of different plastic types in the human body,
每周食用这种鱼可能会威胁
taking weekly servings of thesekinds of fish
消费者的健康
may threaten the health of consumers,
特别是弱势群体 包括孕妇 母乳喂养的妇女和儿童
especially vulnerable groups including pregnant and breastfeeding women and children.
在美国 人造垃圾 也就是一些人造物料
In the US, anthropogenic debris, meaning man-made materials,
在四分之一的鱼类中被发现
were found in a quarter of individual fish
占所有被测鱼种的三分之二
and in two-thirds of all fish species tested,
贝类样品的三分之一也发现了人造垃圾
and also about a third ofindividual shellfish samples,
这表明 人造垃圾已经通过海鲜食品渗透到了
demonstrating that man-madedebris has infiltrated
水生食物链 达到很高的水平
the aquatic food chain up to the level of humans via seafood.
因为人造垃圾与污染物混合物相关联
Because this debris is associatedwith a cocktail of pollutants,
这验证了人们的担忧
this validates the concern that thedebris may be transferring
人造垃圾会把化学物质通过饮食转移给人类 包括鱼或者贝类
these chemicals to humans viadiets containing fish or shellfish,
这就产生了化学物质生物体内积累
raising important questionsregarding the bioaccumulation
和人类健康的重要问题
and biomagnification of chemicals,and consequences for human health.”
现在该研究还包括非塑料碎片
Now this study also included non-plastic debris
比如泡沫 薄膜 纤维
like foams, film, and fibers,
但是 我们现在知道微粒塑料的吸收
but we know now that theingestion of microplastics
是相当普遍的现象
appears to be awidespread and pervasive
跨越了许多商业上重要的软体动物
phenomenona across a numberof commercially important mollusks,
甲壳类动物和鱼
crustaceans, and fish.
人类作为顶级的食肉动物
So, the potential forhumans, as top predators,
食用海产品中的微塑料污染物的可能性是真实存在的
to consume microplastics ascontaminants in seafood is very real,
它对人类健康的影响需要加以考虑
and its implications forhealth need to be considered.
尽管存在相当的不确定性和未知因素
“Despite the existence of considerableuncertainties and unknowns,
现在我们可能也已经有充分的理由采取紧急行动
there may already be a compelling case for urgent actions
去识别 控制微塑料颗粒
to identify, control, and, wherever possible,
只要能在它进入海洋之前消除它们的主要来源
eliminate key sources of microplastics before they ever make into our oceans.

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视频概述

食用海产品中的污染物塑料的可能性是现实的存在。它对人类健康的影响需要加以考虑。可能已经有了令人信服的理由采取紧急行动,在微粒塑料进入海洋之前消除它们的主要来源。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

叶轮

审核员

审核员_Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQiwEKnqk1c

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