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一座奥斯卡小金人值多少钱?

How Much is an Oscar Worth?

《我刚发现》
众所周知 演戏是一项如过山车般危险的工作
As we all know, acting is a precarious, roller-coaster type business.
像梅丽尔·斯特里普 杰克·尼科尔森
The Meryl Streeps, the Jack Nicholsons,
布拉德·皮特的演员 都是凤毛麟角
and the Brad Pitts, they’re few and far between.
大部分男女演员就算不会永久息影
Most actors or actresses will hit at least an occasional dry spell,
也会偶尔遇上事业空窗期
if not a permanent one.
对极少数演员来说
For a very select few,
有个简单方法似乎能让他们赚钱度过空窗期
a seemingly easy solution to help get them through this dry spell financially
那就是把他们的奥斯卡小金人卖掉
might be to sell their Oscar statuette.
反正它就是在某个架子上积累灰尘 对吧
I mean, it’s just otherwise collecting dust on a shelf somewhere, right?
由于从1929年开始 颁发的小金人总数只有3千多个
Now, given only a little over 3,000 Oscars have been awarded since 1929
而且收藏家和影迷人数多得数不清
and there are countless collectors and movie fanatics out there,
所以你可能以为小金人会值钱吧?
you’d think an Oscar statuette would be worth a small fortune… right?
可惜不是
Well, unfortunately not so.
至少在法律上不是这样
At least, not legally.
自20世纪中叶以来 每个奥斯卡入围者
Every Academy Award nominee since the mid-twentieth century
都必须签署一份“得奖人协议书”
is required to sign a “winner’s agreement” contract,
承诺自己或者继承人
in which they must agree that neither they nor their heirs
以后都不会把小金人卖掉
will ever sell their Academy Award
除非先让美国电影艺术与科学学院
without first offering to sell it back to the Motion Picture Academy of Arts & Sciences
以一美元把小金人买回
for one single dollar.
没错 在把它放上eBay高价卖出之前
Yup, that’s absolutely right; before they can even fling it on eBay for a princely sum,
他们必须先让学院以一美元买下它
they have to offer it to the Academy for a single dollar.
可是 光是制作奖座用到的材料
This is despite the fact that the Oscar statuette in materials alone
据说价值约900美元
is reportedly worth about $900,
主要是因为它的镀金层相当厚
mainly thanks to its relatively thick gold plating.
学院采用这类强迫性合约
This forced contract is primarily the Academy’s way
主要是为了控制奖座的购买行为
of controlling the acquisition of its trophies.
他们要确保小金人不会落入私藏家手中
They want to make sure no Oscar arrives in the hands of private collectors –
只有得奖人或者其继承人才能拥有它
they should only ever be had by those who earned them or their heirs.
正如学院的一位代表所说
As one Academy representative noted,
“它们不是放在货架上售卖的装饰品”
“They’re not tchotchkes to be bought off of a shelf.”
好 要是有人不肯签协议书 怎么办?
Alright, so what happens if someone refuses to sign that agreement?
学院就会把奖座收回
Well the Academy, they’ll actually take that statuette back.
但是以前不是这样的
It wasn’t always this way, though.
令学院非常苦恼的是
Much to the chagrin of the Academy,
在1951年度颁奖礼之前获奖的得奖人
those given Oscars before the 1951 award ceremony
并未签署这样的协议书
were under no such agreement, and
因此多年来 这些奖座有很多已被卖掉
many of those have been sold over the years.
比如 奥森·威尔斯的继承人在2011年
For instance, Orson Welles’ heirs were able to sell
把他在1941年凭《公民凯恩》夺得的小金人
his 1941 Oscar for “Citizen Kane” in 2011
以86万1542美元的价格卖掉
for $861,542,
相等于现值约93万美元
which is about $930,000 today.
为阻止他们这么做 学院曾向他们提告
This is despite the Academy previously attempting to bar them from doing this via a lawsuit.
但是最终 法院认为
But, in the end, the courts ruled that
由于威尔斯并没签署这样的协议书
as Welles had signed no such agreement,
他的继承人可以把奖座卖掉
his heirs were free to sell the statuette.
其他继承人由于尝试卖掉1950年代之前的奖座
Other heirs who’ve tried similar sales on the pre-1950s statuettes
也遭到了学院的提告 结果有输有赢
have had mixed results in winning such court battles.
虽然学院非常积极地阻止人们
Despite the Academy being extremely aggressive
将各个年代的小金人卖掉
combating any attempts to sell any Oscars, regardless of era,
但是一般相信
it is generally estimated that at a minimum,
自1929年的首个奥斯卡颁奖礼以来
150 Academy Awards have been sold
所颁发出去的3千座小金人当中
since the first Oscar ceremony in 1929,
估计至少已有150座被卖掉
this is out of a total of 3,000 awarded.
其中有许多是偷偷摸摸地卖掉的
Many of these are sold at least semi-secretly,
这样 买家和卖家
so that neither the buyer nor the seller has
都不必遭到学院的反击
to deal with the Academy’s wrath.
那么已知的交易中
So of the known sales,
这些奖座的拍卖价一般是多少呢?
how much do these awards typically sell for at auction?
拍卖价范围很广
Well, the range is fairly big,
一般最少有一两万美元
it’s typically at the lower end of a few tens of thousands of dollars,
最高则是天价
and up wildly from there.
对比一下 已知最昂贵的小金人
For reference, the most expensive of the known sales
是1939年颁给《乱世佳人》的最佳影片奖座
is the 1939 Academy Award for Best Picture for “Gone with the Wind”.
它是在1999年卖给了迈克尔·杰克逊
This was sold to Michael Jackson in 1999
成交价高达150万美元
for an astounding $1.5 million
相等于现值约220万美元
which is about $2.2 million today.
史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格也曾买下
Steven Spielberg also famously bought
克拉克·盖博凭《一夜风流》获得的影帝奖座
Clark Gable’s Best Actor trophy for “It Happened One Night”
以及贝蒂·戴维斯凭《红衫泪痕》获得的影后奖座
and Bette Davis’ Best Actress trophy for “Jezebel”
总成交价为约120万美元
for a combined total of about $1.2 million.
对此 学院并没表示反对
However, this didn’t upset anyone at the Academy because
因为斯皮尔伯格随即把两个奖座捐回给了学院
Spielberg promptly turned around and donated them to said Academy.
还有几名演员同样在买下小金人之后
A few other actors have also purchased Oscars in similar ways and
也把它们捐回给了学院
donated them back to the Academy.
这时你可能会想
You might be wondering at this point
学院通过各种途径得回来的旧奖座
what the Academy does with such old statuettes
究竟是干啥用的
that it re-acquires in one way or another.
大多时候 学院只是把奖座锁在保险库里
Well, mostly they just lock them in a vault,
很少把它们展示给公众
rarely ever displaying them to the public.
虽然这种做法好像很不公平
While this may seem quite unfair,
但是奥斯卡奖的得奖人
apart from potential black-market sales of statuettes,
除了能在黑市把奖座卖掉之外
some who win Oscars are well compensated in other ways
还能得到其他方面的报酬
for the Academy bestowing the award on them.
比如 科尔盖特大学进行了一项研究
For instance, according to a study done at Colgate University,
名为《奥斯卡奖的标示及好莱坞的性别偏见》
“Academy Award Signaling and Gender Bias in Hollywood”,
它表明 男演员获奥斯卡奖之后的薪金
male actors on average receive an 81% increase in their pay
平均比获奖前高出81%
in their post-Oscar acting years versus pre-award years,
部分是因为他们获得了奥斯卡奖
at least some of which seems to be because of their Academy Award
而不仅仅是因为他们入行了比较久
and not just because they’ve been around in the industry for longer.
但是研究对于女演员的说法是
For women, however, as noted in the study,
“获颁奥斯卡奖未对样本中女演员的薪金
“winning an Academy Award did not have a statistically significant effect
起到统计显著的作用”
on women’s salaries in the sample.”
具体原因不清楚
Why this is the case isn’t actually clear,
但研究中提出了各种猜测
with a variety of speculative reasons suggested in the study.
比如说 在好莱坞 比起资深女演员
For instance, they noted that younger women in Hollywood
大部分高价码的女主角角色
tend to get a majority of the available high paying female lead roles
通常由年轻女演员获得
versus their more seasoned counterparts.
此外 获颁奥斯卡奖的女演员
This, combined with the fact that the average age
平均年龄是36.77岁
of an actress winning an Oscar is 36.77 years old,
差不多就是大部分女演员薪水下滑的时候
around the time most actresses see their earnings decline,
因此 事业处在这一阶段的得奖人
it may be the case that these award winners simply
能选择的主角角色可能已经变少了
have fewer prime roles to pick from at this stage in their careers,
所以她们获奖后要求加薪的能力也变弱了
so have less ability to negotiate higher salaries after their Oscar win.
她们常常也被迫接受价码很低的小角色
They are also often forced to round out their careers
导致事业无疾而终
taking minor roles that pay much less,
但是由于研究的得奖人样本人数有限
which may potentially be masking any statistically significant benefit
即使获奖让女演员的薪金有统计显著的增加
which an Oscar might be giving them in pay increase given the
这一现象可能导致获奖的作用受到隐蔽
limited sample size of award winners we have to work with.
另一方面 研究人员发现
On the flip side, the researchers noted that
获奖男演员的平均年龄是44.67岁
the average age of a male actor winning an Oscar is 44.67.
与女演员不同
Unlike with actresses,
较年长男演员有更多主角角色可以接演
leading roles for older male actors are drastically more prevalent,
因此他们在角色的选择上更灵活
allowing them greater flexibility in the roles that they choose
谈薪金时也更有底气
and greater leverage in salary negotiations.
研究人员也注意到
The researchers also noted that,
男演员不管获奖与否
whether a male actor wins an Oscar or not,
他们一过42岁 平均薪水就会开始大大提高
their salaries on average begin to markedly increase past 42 years old,
但曾获奖演员的提高幅度较大
just more so if they also have an Oscar.
另一方面
On the other hand,
正如之前提过 女演员在事业早期的薪水最高
as noted, actresses tend to earn the most early in their careers
但是到了男演员薪金迅速上升的年龄
with salaries beginning to drop off significantly
女演员的薪水会开始大幅度减少
as they approach the age male actors’ salaries begin to rapidly rise.
遗憾的是
Unfortunately, we could find no similar study done
对于非演员类奖项得主获奖后薪金是否上升
comparing non-actor Oscar wins to see what, if any, future earnings benefit
我们找不到任何相关的类似研究
the Academy Award provides for these individuals.
告诉你个额外的事实
And now for a bonus fact:
1992年 演员哈罗德·约翰·罗素需要一笔钱
In 1992, actor Harold John Russell needed money
来还清他妻子的医药费
to pay for his wife’s medical bills,
于是决定把他的小金人卖掉
so decided to sell his Best Supporting Actor Oscar
他在1946年凭《黄金时代》获得了最佳男配角奖
for his role in “The Best Years of Our Lives“ from 1946,
奖座的拍卖价是6万零500美元
with it being auctioned for $60,500,
相等于现值10万3千美元
which is about $103,000 today.
可想而知 此举当时引起了争议
As you might imagine, this was a controversial move at the time,
但他表示
but as he said:
“我不晓得为什么会有人反对
“I don’t know why anybody would be critical.
我妻子的健康比情感价值更重要
My wife’s health is much more important than sentimental reasons.
就算小金人不在了 电影永远都会在”
The movie will be here, even if the Oscar isn’t.”
学院的折衷方案是
In an attempt to meet him halfway,
只要罗素不把小金人卖掉
the Academy offered to loan Russell the money for the bills
学院就会向他贷款
if he wouldn’t sell his Oscar,
当然 他还是要偿还贷款的
but, of course, he would have had to pay that back,
然后他拒绝了
so, he refused the offer.
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And as always, thank you for watching.

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一座奥斯卡小金人值多少钱?

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