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饮用水中的氟对人的影响

How Much Fluoride Should Be In Your Water?

大家好 感谢收看今天的Dnews Plus
Hey everyone, thanks for tuning in to Dnews Plus again today.
我是Trace
I am Trace.
今天是饮用水四集系列的第三集
And this is episode three of four on drinking water.
我们之前已经讲过了
So far we’ve talked about when drinking water became a thing.
当饮水安全问题受重视后
We’ve talked about some of the first technology
一些用来净化饮用水的基本技术
that we’ve used to get drinking water to us.
饮用水的标准
Regulations in drinking water.
饮用水里的杂质
What is in your drinking water,
当然对于里面的杂质只是泛泛而谈
which I think it won’t bring us to today,
因为只是提了一下氟化物
because we talked a little bit about fluoride.
你应该知道点氟化物 对吧
I feel like you know a little bit about fluoride, right?
今天我们和特邀嘉宾
Today we have a special guest in
来谈一谈饮用水除氟
to talk about water defluoridation.
有请Katya Cherukumilli
It is Katya Cherukumilli,
加州大学伯克利分校的环境工程博士生
a PhD candidate in environmental engineering at UC Berkeley.
– 欢迎 最近怎么样- 谢谢 非常不错
-Welcome. How’s it going?-Thank you. It’s going great.
下面我们会谈到
Later we’re also gonna talk about
我们是否存在饮水安全危机
if we have run out of the availability of drinking water
及其他一些问题
and all sorts of other stuff.
那我们开始吧
So let’s kick into this.
请问你怎么会对饮用水研究感兴趣呢
So, how did you get interested in studying drinking water?
我开始对这个课题感兴趣
I became interested in this topic,
是因为我认识到
because I believe that
每个人的饮水权利
everyone has a fundamental human right to clean drinking water,
都应得到满足
that should be fulfilled.
但是目前 全世界有超过7.8亿人
And currently, this basic need is not being met
干净饮水仍然无法得到保障
for over 780 million people.
我出生在印度
Also I was born in India,
在搬到美国以后
and when I moved to the US,
我注意到两地的人们
I noticed the stark contrast
在干净饮用水获取难易上的强烈对比
between the access to clean drinking water that people had.
而我通过高中和大学
And I learned quickly during high school
很快学习了解到
and college through my studies,
饮用水难题实际上
that this field of drinking water
包含了环境科学 自然资源和全球贫困问题
really encompasses and combines my interests in
因此我对这几方面产生了浓厚的兴趣
environmental science, natural resources and global poverty.
所以就饮用水本身
So when you look at drinking water,
因为你从事这方面研究有几年了
because of the way you’ve been studying in over the years,
对里面的某些杂质也有所了解 对吧
I imagine you see certain impurities in there, right?
那你研究的最主要的杂质是什么
So what’s the big one that you study?
我研究一种自然生成名为氟化物的无机污染物
I focus on an inorganic contaminants that naturally occured called fluoride.
就是它 我想大家可能在
Got it. I think some people have maybe heard of that
其他地方听说过
out there in the world,
因为在美国会把它
cause we do put that in our drinking water
添加到饮水里
here in the United States.
但是你说它是自然生成的
But it naturally occurs you say,
那它在美国也会自然生成吗
does it occur naturally in the United States as well?
在少数几个州 比如俄克拉荷马和德州
In a few states, such as Oklahoma and Texas,
地下水里含有浓度很高的氟化物
you have high concentrations of fluoride in groundwater,
那里的岩石之中
naturally occurring as a result of
会自然地浸出氟化物
fluoride leaching out of rocks.
而岩石和含水土层的某些矿物中蕴藏的氟化物
It’s embedded in some minerals in rocks and aquifers.
让氟化物在地下水中维持了较高浓度
And that’s why it equilibrates at such high concentrations.
明白了 那世界的其他地方呢
Got it. And what about the rest of the world?
会不会…… 有些地方含量没这么高
Does it… There are areas where it’s worse?
世界上约有2亿人
So almost 200 million people around the world
把含有氟化物的地下水
are consuming fluoride contaminated groundwater
作为他们的主要饮用水源
as their primary source of drinking water.
其中地质成因污染导致的
And some of the areas that fluoride naturally occurs
氟化物自然生成的地区
as a result of this geo-genic contamination,
包括中国北部平原
include northern plains of China,
印度的许多州 东非大裂谷 墨西哥中部
many states in India, the East African Rift Valley, central Mexico,
阿根廷和中东地区
and Argentina and the Middle East.
哇喔 我觉得 这些地区的这么多人
Wow, yeah, I mean that’s a lot of humanity,
看来必须饮用这种水
it seems like that have to drink this water.
那这会有什么后果呢
So what happens when they do that,
当他们饮用含高浓度氟化物的水后
if they’re consuming fluoride at high concentrations?
会对身体造成什么危害呢
What does that do to your body?
确实 有一些医学上已专业记录的危害
So, some of the effects that people have already noted
包括氟斑牙
that medical professionals include dental fluorosis,
这种病发作得很早
which you can start developing
早到在不满8岁的孩子身上
if you’re a child under 8 years old,
这个年龄段的孩子还在长牙
when your permanent teeth are still forming.
牙齿的牙釉质还在生长中
This is basically a modeling of your teeth enamel.
另外 也会造成无法恢复的严重氟骨症
You can also develop irreversible crippling skeletal fluorosis,
也就是会造成身体畸形
which basically deforms you,
因而不能正常地上学或工作
and makes it unable for you to go to school or work,
也没法拥有家庭过正常人的生活
or have a normal life and family.
其他危害还包括
And other side effects include
氟化物会损伤小肠绒毛
fluorides effect on the intestinal villi.
从而抑制你汲取营养的能力
So it inhibits your ability to uptake nutrients,
使你患上贫血或导致智商低下
so you could develop anemia or lower IQ.
事实上最近氟化物被归类为一种神经毒素
And recently fluoride was actually classified as a neurotoxin.
呜 哇喔
Ooh! Wow!
那我们为啥还要把它添加到饮用水里
So why the hell do we put it in our water then?
因为像我刚才提过的
So as I mentioned earlier
和很多东西一样在适宜的低浓度下
in low concentrations and in moderation as with many things
氟化物对身体是有好处的
fluoride can be good for you.
好吧
OK.
所以我们按照0.8-1的百万分率来添加
And so we add about 0.8 to 1 parts per million,
世界卫生组织和美国环保署规定的氟化物含量
and the World Health Organization and the US EPA limit for fluoride
是其百万分率不能超过1.5
is around 1.5 parts per million.
是的 所以类似添加其他任何微量物质一样
OK. So like with anything in this area,
需要控制的是用量而不是不能添加
it’s about dosage more than it’s about presence.
对的 你摄入的量
Exactly. The amount which you intake
会因你摄入的持续时间和方式
for how long you can take it,
而带来完全不同的结果
and in what forms really impacts the outcome.
嗯 明白 明白
OK. Got it. Got it.
说到氟化物
When it comes to fluoride,
它是怎样对人体产生益处的呢
how is it that it can be good for you then?
当然是低摄入量 因为摄入量高
If even at low doses, if it high doses,
会有潜在的神经毒素危害
can be a neurotoxin potentially
和刚才提到的那些危害
and cause all of these problems..
那低摄入量呢 益处在哪里
How about low doses? How does it help?
嗯 这个问题很棒
Yeah, that’s a great question.
在过去的70年里
So for the last 70 years,
美国市民已经……
people in the US have been…
市政府就已经在我们的饮用水加氟
municipalities have been adding it to our drinking water.
所以 从19世纪40年代就开始了
And so this started in 1940s,
因为他们发现通过
because they found a beneficial correlation
添加少量的氟化物在饮用水里面
between a reduction in the incidence of dental caries and cavities,
可以减少龋齿和牙洞的发生
and tooth decay through the addition of
从而预防蛀牙
fluoride in drinking water in low quantities.
其原理主要是
And basically what happens is
人的牙齿和牙釉质由羟基磷灰石组成
your enamel and your teeth are made up of hydroxyapatite.
当人摄入氟化物
And when you intake fluoride,
它会在牙齿上形成一个防止牙洞产生的
this forms a acid resistant layer on your teeth called fluoro apatite,
叫做氟磷灰石的酸性保护层
by allows for the prevention of cavities.
哦 所以实际上就是与身体协同工作
Hmm, so it’s actually like working with your body.
– 对的- 哦
-Exactly.-Huh.
这都是氟化物的功劳
And that’s all just from fluoride which,
就像你说的 自然生成的氟化物
as you said, naturally occurs.
那么 氟化物哪里来的呢
So where does the fluoride come from?
在世界上的许多地区
In many parts of the world,
地下含水层里某些矿石中
the underground aquifers contain certain rocks,
含氟矿物会随着时间的推移浸出氟化物
which have fluoride minerals that leach out over time,
让地下水氟含量一直维持在较高浓度
and equilibria very high concentrations in the groundwater.
所以 比如你抽出地下水
So you end up taking this water out of the ground,
然后 想要喝上一杯
and you wanna, you know, put in a cup and have some.
但如果你真喝了
But if you do that ,
– 你就会摄入过量的氟化物- 对的
-You’re gonna end up drinking too much fluoride.- Exactly.
你就可能患上氟骨症或导致智商低下
And then you could end up with a lower IQ or crippled,
和其他严重后果
and number of other problems,
– 感觉很可怕- 是的
-Sounds awful.-It is.
那它怎么样引发这些疾病的呢
And so how does it cause those things to happen to you?
能造成这么多危害的
You know what is it about the fluoride
氟化物到底是什么
that is giving so many problems.
– 因为我不是医学专业的- 当然
-So not being a medical professional.-Sure.
所以这个问题我回答不了太详细
I can’t answer that question in great detail.
但我知道一些泛泛的理论
But I do know some theories that are out there,
比如氟化物怎么产生的
such as the formation of fluoride.
通过氟化钙沉淀到人骨骼上
Calcium fluoride precipitates on your bones,
或通过把钙析出来的方法
or leaching out calcium,
这是两种不同的方法
those are two different methods.
好吧 听起来都不怎么样
OK, that doesn’t sound good either.
我们如何产出氟化物
How is it that we get this fluoride out
然后再添加回饮水里呢
before, of course, then we put it back in, I guess.
是这样 在世界上
Well, the areas in the world
确实在氟化饮用水
where we’re actually fluoridating our water,
或给水加氟的地区
or adding fluoride to our water,
地下水里自然生成的氟化物浓度不足
don’t really have naturally occurring fluoride concentrations.
比如在美国 大部分的地下水
So most groundwater, for example in the US,
实际上没有自然生成的氟化物
doesn’t really have excess or naturally occurring fluoride.
所以 这就是为什么市政府
So that’s why our municipalities
在过去的70年间给饮用水加氟的原因
for the last 70 years have been adding fluoride to our drinking water.
现在在这些地区 比如 嗯 中国
Now in areas such as, uh, China,
中国北部平原
the Northern Plains of China,
东非大裂谷
the East African Rift Valley,
印度的许多州
many many states in India,
呃 阿根廷中部 墨西哥北部 中东地区
uh, central Argentina, northern Mexico, the Middle East,
氟化物可以自然生成到很高的浓度
fluoride is naturally occurring at extremely high concentrations.
所以 在这些地区
So in areas like this,
已经有各种各样的技术运用在除氟上
there’s a variety of technologies already present for removal fluoride.
但其中很多地区却接触不到或负担不起这些技术
But a lot of them are not locally available or locally affordable,
因此我才会聚焦于设计一个成本极低的技术
so that’s why I’m focused on designing an ultra low cost technology.
那么 你能给我们讲讲你正在设计的内容吗
OK, so can you tell us a bit about what you’re designing?
– 可以透露吗- 可以的
-Is that allowed?-Sure.
那我正在做的一件事
So one thing that I’m focused on,
是开发一种活性氧化铝过滤器的替代品
is providing an alternative to activated alumina filters.
– 好的- 那么目前世界上很多人
-OK.-So currently many people around the world
尤其是中产阶级消费者
especially in middle-class consumers,
他们用活性氧化铝过滤器来除氟
they use activated alumina filters to remove fluoride.
这种活性氧化铝材料
And this material, activate alumina,
和所有铝金属实际上都来自于铝矾土矿
and all aluminum metal actually comes from an Oracle bauxite,
该矿在世界上很多国家都有分布
which is found in many countries around the world.
澳大利亚就有很大储量
There’s large deposits in Australia,
还有印度 加纳 几内亚
India, Ghana, Guinea.
我把重点放在铝矾土上的原因是
And the reason I chose to focus on bauxite is because
它首先对氟化物有很强的亲和性
it has a strong affinity for fluoride first of all.
然后能够相对容易和简单地保持系统运作
And it would be a relatively simple and easy to maintain system,
比起一些技术更加简单
that is less complex than something
比如反渗透技术
such as reverse osmosis,
因为反渗透需要大量熟练工人来操作维持
which requires a lot of skilled labour to operate and maintain.
好的 可能大家不了解 反渗透到底是什么呢
OK, so reverse osmosis just to remind people is what exactly ?
它是一个压力驱动膜系统
It’s a pressure driven membrane system,
需要非常熟练的工人来操控它
which requires you to have very skilled labour to operate.
– 是的- 它会造成 它会产生许多废水
-Yeah.-And it caught, it creates a lot of waste brine.
从其存在的意义上来讲
And it’s also very inefficient
因为浪费了太多处理的水
in the sense that you waste a lot,
所以效率非常低
lot of water that you’re trying to treat.
好的 那是不是让水穿过一个膜
Right, so you end up running this water through a membrane,
通过各种不同办法
and adding all of these different things to it
试图过滤出氟化物
to try and pull the fluoride out.
然后还会有副产品废水
And then you end up with a waste product,
当然也会得到净化过的水
but you also get clean water.
– 差不多- 好吧 差不多 我还是描述得差不多嘛
-Sort of.-OK, sort of. I was sort of there.
那你的方法具体又是什么呢
But and then in your method what exactly,
铝矾土是如何能够除氟的呢
how does the bauxite help remove the fluoride?
是它们可以互相吸附
Like it they attract each other
然后将氟过滤出来 还是
and then you can kind of filter it out? Or…
归功于铝矾土里面一种叫三水铝石的活性矿物
So bauxite has an active mineral in it called gibbsite,
它是铝的一种氢氧化物
which is an aluminum hydroxide
当生产更精炼和更昂贵的活性铝材料时
And that’s actually what you’re trying to purify and leach out
它其实是你需要提纯滤出的物质
when you’re making the more refined and more expensive activated the aluminum material.
跟它同时生成的还有铝矾土里的其他氧化矿物
And gibbsite, uh, co-occurs with other mineral oxides present in bauxite,
比如氧化铁 二氧化硅和二氧化钛
such as iron oxides, silicon oxide and titanium oxides.
我认为
My argument is that
我们无需运用极其化学或热强度的方法
we don’t need to apply very chemical or thermal intensive methods
把铝矾土里的杂质滤出
to leech out the impurities present in bauxite.
连带着里面的其他物质
And we can in fact use it
我们直接就可以利用它
in addition to all the things that exist with it.
嗯哼 那它怎么……
Mm-hmm, and then what … how does it …
当氟化物与它接触后会发生什么
what is the fluoride do when it comes in contact with that?
这个过程的想法是
So the idea of this process is
把铝矾土压碎成高比表面积的细小颗粒
we’re crushing the bauxite to very fine particles high surface area.
把它用到处理的间歇过程中
And we would apply it in a batch process,
将氟化物吸附到它上面
where the fluoride can adsorb onto it,
此时氟化物从液相出来
meaning that it’s coming out of the aqueous phase,
吸附在固态粒子上
and attaching on to the solid particles.
喔 很棒 那随后只需过滤出那些粒子
Oh, cool. And then so then you just filter those particles out.
产出净化过的水
And you have a cleaner water,
或者至少完成了除氟 除氟化
or at least a defluorided, defluorided.
– 去氟化- 去氟化
-Defluoridated.-Defluoridated.
– 这词挺难的- 是有点难念
-It’s a tough word. -It is a weird word.
随后的后处理的方法就是
So the idea of post-treatment methods,
你可以用过滤膜
you could use membranes,
你可以用慢砂滤池或快砂滤池
you could use slow sand filters, rapid sand filters.
有各种各样的方法
There’s a variety of options
– 沉淀 沉淀池 混凝剂- 是的 但这样来看
-Settle, settling tanks and coagulant.-Yeah, but at that point …
最危险的氟化物至少消除了
the dangerous thing of the fluoride at least is, has been removed.
是的 它被转化为
Yes, it’s been partitioned on to something
你可以消除掉它的物态
which you will then remove.
那之后含氟的铝矾土怎么处理呢
And what do you do with the fluoride after that?
目前这个处理方法
So then the idea.
– 显然还停留在理论阶段- 是的
-This is obviously still in the theoretical phase.-Sure.
因为我目前仅仅研究了几年时间
Because I’m … I’ve only been working on it for a few years.
但是这个方法在铝矾土的回收利用上
But the idea would be potentially to
会非常有潜力
retrieve value from the bauxite
可以把用过的铝矾土卖回给铝厂
by selling it back to alumina manufacturing plants,
或者也许可以经过碱基清洗后
or perhaps even regenerating it
再循环利用它
by doing a caustic base wash.
嗯…… 所以接下来清除氟化物
Mm-hmm, and so then you would what remove the fluoride,
就是可将铝矾土与它分离
and be able to separate that out from the bauxite,
– 然后再利用这些铝矾土- 确实可行
-and reuse the bauxite?-Potentially.
– 但是最好还是- 哇喔
-But ideally it would be great,-Wow.
– 将它卖回给铝厂- 是的
-if we could sell it back to the aluminum manufacturers.-Right.
因为少到只有百万分之几的氟化物含量
because small flora, amounts of fluoride in parts per million
不会对它们的铝生产造成不良影响
shouldn’t affect their process for producing aluminum from it.
这让我想起很多回收利用的系列做法
It reminds me a lot of a series we just did on recycling,
比如回收塑料
where we’re talking about taking plastic
把塑料切碎 融掉
you cut it up, you melt it down
然后重新售卖给大众
and then you resell it back to people
人们可以再次使用
who can then use it for stuff,
因为是否有少许杂质
because it doesn’t matter that it’s not
对于塑料制品的生产和再利用没什么影响
as pure as fresh plastic to some manufacturers.
如果你不了解这种做法
So if you don’t know that series,
可以了解一下 大开眼界哦
you can go back and watch is pretty fun.
但总之 它就像是那样的做法
But anyway, yeah, so it sounds a lot like that
作为已经被证明的商业模式
which is already been a proven business model,
很简洁有效
so kind of neat.
我想这个技术我们也说了很多
I guess we’ve already covered a lot of this,but
那其他一些
what about some of the other technologies that
人们用来除氟的技术呢
that people are using to remove fluoride.
像你说的 美国地下水缺氟
Like you say … We don’t have it here in the United States,
所以我们非常少量地加氟
so we put in a very small amount of it.
但是那些
But what about places that
接触不到你们研究的处理系统的地区怎么办呢
may not have access to the system that you’re working with?
有没有其他人们正在使用的除氟系统呢
What other systems are people using now?
是的 这个问题提得好
Yeah, that’s a great question.
不过 我先澄清一点 在美国部分地区
So quickly for one point of clarification in the US,
也有自然生成的氟化物
there is some naturally occurring fluoride
比如在俄克拉荷马州和德州的部分地区
in Oklahoma, parts of Texas.
但是 幸运的是住在那里的人们可以使用
But luckily, the people living there have access to
市政管道供应的自来水
municipal piped water supply.
而这些在
And this is not the case in
印度和非洲的农村却无法实现
rural India or rural Africa.
还有许多其他地区
There are many many other places
人们只能依赖钻井取水
where people are reliant only on bore wells,
或者地下水井作为他们的主要饮用水源
or groundwater wells for their main source of drinking water.
这就是为什么在美国我们没把氟化物
And so that’s why we don’t really see fluoride as a huge epidemic,
或者把氟中毒当作一个大问题来看待
or fluorosis as a huge epidemic here in the US.
但如果没有市政供水我们也一样
But it could be if we didn’t have those municipal …
– 多亏有了市政供水系统- 是的 如果我们没有……
-Power turn, municipal system.-Exactly. We didn’t have conti…
如果没有不间断的市政供水
If we didn’t have continuous water supply,
我们可能也会面临同样的问题
we could also face similar problems.
哇喔 感觉我们就在悬崖边上
Wow, we’re just two steps from chaos.
我们能优越地生活在这里是非常幸运的
We’re definitely lucky and privileged to be living here.
回到你提的目前还有哪些除氟技术的问题
So back to your question about existing technology.
我们谈到了一点反渗透技术
So we talked a little bit about reverse osmosis,
谈到了一点活性氧化铝过滤器
a little bit about activated alumina filters.
还有一些我刚开始做这个研究的时候
Some additional technologies that I looked into
调查过的其他技术
when I first started this research,
如铝电凝法
were aluminum electrocoagulation?
这种方法主要是使用铝金属板和电源
which basically uses aluminium metal plates and a power supply
来生成氢氧化铝
to generate the aluminum hydroxides,
我提到过铝矾土里就有这种物质
which I mention are already found in bauxite.
这个方法主要是
So the idea there would be to,
用电源
basically have a power supply,
和氧化铝板
and oxidize the aluminum plates
来生成一种用来除氟的吸收剂
into something that could create an absorbent for fluoride removal.
还有一种我曾在肯尼亚纳库鲁
Another option that I’ve seen
看到过的方法 是用骨炭
in Nakuru Kenya is bone char.
那里的人用大量的动物骨头
So they’re taking massive amounts of bones,
放到一个巨大的火炉里进行炭化
and charring them by putting them in a huge furnace,
从而得到极高空隙率和表面积的材料来除氟
and using that extremely porous high surface area material to remove fluoride.
像设陷阱 或者
I kind of like traps it, or
– 像机油滤清器或类似的东西吗- 有点类似 可以说是
-Like oil filter or something like that?-Just similar, I would say,
– 相似的吸附过程- 好的
-It’s a similar absorptive process.-OK.
你刚才提到了很重要的一点
You just brought up a great point that
活性氧化铝过滤与含有活性碳的
activated alumina can be compared to Brita filters,
碧然德过滤器有些类似
which contain activated carbon.
对啊 是这样
Right, OK, cool.
所以对那些并不是很了解的人们
So that’s a kind of way to think about it in your brain,
当说到活性氧化铝
is that like when you say activated alumina it,
他们脑海里可以把它想象成
for people that aren’t necessarily familiar with that
在他们家里水龙头上的过滤器
think of the filter on their water faucet,
就像个水罐 对吧
kind of pitcher, right?
当然家用过滤器除杂质
If that’s removing some impurities,
而它只是去除特定物质比如氟化物
this is just removing very specific ones like fluoride.
非常正确 因为氟化物跟铝有特殊的亲和性
Exactly, because fluoride has a specific affinity for aluminum.
这其实是一个不错的视角
that actually brings up a really good point,
你可以想想花费了多少
if you can imagine how much effort,
努力 时间和金钱
and time and money it takes
– 来妥善保养你的碧然德过滤器- 是的
-to properly maintain your Brita filter at home,-Yeah.
你也就能理解
you can then understand
为什么要考虑从社区规模上
why we are thinking of a community scale
来应用铝矾土水处理系统
water treatment system with bauxite.
因为我们不能指望
Because we can’t expect people
那些生活在非常穷困的
that are living in these rural remote regions that,
遥远乡村地区的人们
that are very impoverished
愿意增加一个额外的经济负担
to have an additional burden
来处理他们的饮水
to take care of their own water.
这就是我为什么不赞成将这种铝矾土处理技术
So that’s why I’m not in favor of a household treatment system
用在家庭处理系统上
with this bauxite technology,
我认为最好还是在社区规模上来应用它
and I think it’s better off as a community scale.
对啊 那根据你刚才说的
Right, yeah, and I’m sure on top of that
我是不是可以这样理解
just to kind of riff off of your point is
我们有这种浪费但不失可行的生态链
for us we have this kind of waste system where I can,
可以为个人提供在家使用的小型设备
you can bring me a tiny thing that I can put in my house,
用完后有专人回收
and then I can give it to somebody else
并妥善地处置
who takes it and disposes of it properly,
显然这对于那些没有
and that’s also more difficult
设施基础的地区会倍加困难
in places that don’t have that kind of infrastructures.
因此从实际出发 可能从社区规模上来应用
So much, it’d probably be a benefit to have it on a community scale
– 更有利些- 对的
-in that respect as well.-Exactly.
因为这更容易维护一些
Yeah, because it’s more it’s easily maintainable.
那么说到其他杂质 比如砷
So when it comes to stuff other impurities like arsenic,
它们从哪里来的
where do those come from?
也从地下岩石中来吗
Is it also from rocks underground?
或者…… 这么问 为什么
Or… And if that’s the case,
不是所有饮用水里都有这些你想都想不到的
why isn’t all water filled with all of these weird little things
奇怪微量物质
that you never think about?
其实 这是个地理问题
So it is very much a geographical problem.
你可以通过地图查到
So you can find maps that show you exactly
哪里的岩石和土壤
where there’s rocks and soils
含有高浓度的砷
that contain high levels of arsenic.
世界上砷超标的一大块区域
And a big area of the world,
就是印度孟加拉邦和孟加拉国
where this is a problem is in West Bengal and Bangladesh.
我们也有研究砷处理技术的实验室
My lab is also focused on arsenic remediation technologies.
实验室的名字叫ECAR
Our labs is known as ECAR,
电化学砷修复
Electrochemical Arsenic Remediation.
哦 哇喔 好吧 那么
Oh, wow. OK, and so,
除了砷和氟化物
other than arsenic and fluoride,
可能你们没有研究这方面
I’m sure they’re removing things that
但人们也会在水处理时
you know maybe aren’t as dangerous,
过滤其他不危险的杂质
or is it all like your lab maybe not.
那当人们想饮用地下水时
But when somebody wants to take water out of the ground,
应该担心水里可能含有的
are there other things that I have to worry about?
其他杂质吗
That might be in that water I mean,
不是指致病菌之类
obviously pathogens and things,
而是指微量矿物
but I mean in terms of mineral content.
嗯 目前人们努力研究低成本和可负担技术
Umm, those two are probably the biggest right now,
来处理的范围最广
that are in the forefront of
和最主要的两种杂质就是氟和砷了
people trying to figure out low-cost and affordable technologies for.
但是在加利福尼亚的中央山谷的萨利纳斯
But if you look at Salinas in the Central Valley in California,
人们除了担心砷超标
people are very worried about nitrate,
还担心自于农业废水的
coming from agricultural effluent,
硝酸盐超标
and also worried about arsenic.
所以这里硝酸盐超标确实是个问题
So nitrate is very much a problem here.
硒污染也是一个日益凸显的问题
Selenium is an up-and-coming emerging pollutant.
那么看起来少量加氟很正常
So it seems like adding a little bit of fluoride is OK,
而饮水除氟更加关键
but removing it is even more important.
所以说 你们的工作很了不起
So it’s pretty awesome that you’re doing what you’re doing.
非常感谢参加节目
Thank you so much for joining us today
分享这么多很棒的知识
and talking to us about this super awesome stuff.
另外还要感谢
And we want to also take a moment
本系列节目的赞助商
to thank our partner for this series.
布鲁姆经济发展中心
The Blum Center for developing economies.
它是一个致力于
There are an innovation and research hub
全球贫困问题的创新型研究中心
that is tackling issues in global poverty,
非常的厉害
and they’re pretty amazing.
所以您一定得
So make sure you check them out.
通过berkeley.edu布鲁姆中心
You can find them over on the web
了解一下他们
at berkeley.edu, Blum Center.
您也可以推特关注Katya 对吧
You can also find Katya on Twitter, right?
点击加入
You just joined.
katyac_h2o 快点关注哦
katyac_h2o. So go give her a quick follow.
大家也可以推特关注我@tracedominguez
Guys you can also find me on Twitter @tracedominguez
@dnews关注节目
You can find the show @dnews.
如果您有这期或者其他这一系列节目
Give us a tweet with the hashtag Dnews Plus,
的任何问题
if you want to ask us any questions about this,
请加上我们的标签推文询问
or any other episode that we’ve had in this series.
如果对加氟和除氟
Let us know down in the comments,
您有什么看法 请在下面的评论里留言
If you feel differently about water fluoridation or defluoridation now.
非常感谢收看Dnews Plus
And thanks so much for tuning in to Dnews Plus.
探求者
SEEKER.

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视频概述

水里的氟化物可能导致氟骨症和智商低下 本节目告诉你我们为什么要给饮用水加氟和除氟以及嘉宾正在研究的低成本饮用水除氟技术

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

Ideayes

审核员

w

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9aJ74GSma-E

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