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你能吃多少

How Much Can You Eat?

vsauce 我是jake 最近我玩儿了很多次明星大乱斗
Vsauce, I’m Jake and I’ve been playing a lot of the game Super Smash Bros recently
尤其主角Kirb 他的特殊技能很出名 吸住目标并且吞下它们
especially as the character Kirby who is known for his ability to inhale and ingest things
让自己体型上变得更大
a lot larger than himself.
这让我想到我们自己的身体 身体消化的方式和消化的极限
And that got me thinking about our own bodies, the way they digest and their limits when
把食物塞进嘴巴引出了一个问题 你能吃
it comes to shoveling food into them which brings up the question…How Much Can You
多少东西呢
Eat?
我们的身体总是让人感到惊奇
Our bodies are full of surprises.
我们完全没有意识到的情况下 某些行动已经开始 某些过程就已经发生了
Actions and processes that are always happening that we aren’t entirely conscious of, for
例如唾液令人难以置信的功能
example the incredible functions of saliva.
你知道的
You know.
让我们去酒吧吧
Let’s go to the bar.
平均来说 你每天产生两到四品脱或者半加仑的唾液
On average, you make 2 to 4 pints of saliva a day or about a half gallon.
如果你已经吃过像泡菜这样酸性的食物 或许你会注意到
If you’ve ever eaten something acidic like a pickle, you might have noticed that more
你的嘴里分泌出更多的唾液 这是因为你的口腔正试图降低酸性
saliva enters your mouth, this is because your mouth is trying to dilute the acidity
来保护你
to protect you.
又或是当你正在咀嚼面包时 你将会注意到它开始变甜了
Or when you eat bread you’ll notice it starts to get sweet.
那是因为唾液正将淀粉分解成麦芽糖以供你的身体使用
That’s the saliva breaking starch down into sugar for your body to use.
当你感到某些东西正在你的嘴里融化时那很大程度还是唾液的原因
When you say something melts in your mouth, it’s probably because of saliva.
唾液中也含有可以促进伤口愈合的富组蛋白
It also has histatins in it which speed up the healing of wounds.
有趣的是 糖类并不会对你的牙齿造成伤害 真正有害的是你口腔里依靠糖类生存
Fun fact: sugar isn’t bad for your teeth, it’s the metabolites that are created by
的细菌产生的代谢物 这才是真正的罪魁祸首
bacteria feeding on the sugar in your mouth that are bad
你如何更清晰的注意到现在你嘴里的唾液是奇特的
It’s weird how you’re probably more aware now of saliva currently in your mouth since
只有当墨西哥玉米卷与唾液开始较量时唾液才会出现
It’s weird how you’re probably more aware now of saliva currently in your mouth since
刚刚有人喊“Taco”吗?
Did somebody say “Taco”?
哦 嗨TacoTammy!
Oh, hey Taco Tammy!
嗨Jake!
Hey Jake!
你知道吗 不仅你的嘴里有味蕾 你的
Did you know that not only do you have taste receptors in your mouth, but also in your
胃 喉头 食道也同样有味蕾
stomach, voice box and esophagus?
这是真的
This is true
这是真的 但是谢天谢地 这些味蕾中能与我们的大脑沟通的只有那些
This is true, but thankfully the only ones that talk to our brain are the ones on our
长在舌头上的
tongue.
又或者你听说过你的胃会消化它自己吗
Or did you know that your stomach digests itself?
这也是真的 Taco
This is also very true Taco
没错 你的胃粘膜每三天更新一次
Yup, your stomach lining replaces itself every 3 days.
又或者你听说过……
Or did you know…
别闹 Jake
Don’t do it, Jake.
不要吃这个仿佛在说话的墨西哥玉米卷
Don’t eat the talking taco.
那仅仅是你的胃产生了饥饿激素或者胃激素 由于
It’s just the hunger hormone or Ghrelin being released in your stomach due to the
一个巨大的美味玉米卷带来的视觉刺激
visual stimulation of a giant delicious taco.
原谅我吧
Forgive me.
Jake 别……
Jake, no, noooooooooooo!
我们的胃如何消化食物一直是一个谜直到1822年
How our stomachs digest food was a mystery until 1822.
威廉博蒙特博士治疗了一个偶然胃部中枪的人
Dr. William Beaumont treated a man who had accidentally been shot in the stomach.
他活了下来 但是博蒙特博士无法缝合他胃上的洞 这让他
He survived but Beaumont was unable to close the hole in his stomach, giving him a window
有了一个可以观察消化过程的窗口
into the digestive process.
通过这个洞 他可以把食物放进去 进行胃酸抽样甚至是
He would place food through the hole, take out gastric acid for sampling, and even put
把食物和其他东西与胃酸在试管中混合 来观察胃是如何
food and other objects into test tubes with the acid to see how the stomach would digest
消化它们的
it.
(拿出解剖模型)他发现消化更大程度上是
(Pull out from anatomy model) What he discovered was that digestion was more of a chemical
化学过程而不是机械过程
process than a mechanical one.
好吧 关于胃酸和消化的话题让我好饿啊 你也饿了吗
All, this talk of gastric acid and digestion is making me hungry, are you hungry?
哦 再给我些洋葱味的调味汁
Oh still got some salsa on me.
跟我来
Come with me.
我们的胃可以容纳3到4升左右的食物
Our stomachs can hold around 3 to 4 liters of stuff.
如果你尝试吃进更多的东西 你的身体会告诉你停止进食 如果你没有停下来的话
If you try and put more than that, your body will tell you to stop and if you don’t it
最终会让你吐出来
will finally just make you throw up.
但是你真的会因为吃得太多而撑死吗
But can you die from eating too much?
是的 如果你摄取大量的碳酸氢钠的话
Yes…kind of, if you ingest a lot of sodium bicarbonate.
那些死于胃爆炸的人就是因为他们的胃里
The people who have died from a stomach explosion did so because they were incredibly full of
塞满了食物以及摄取了过量的小苏打这些苏打会和胃酸反应 生成气体
food and had ingested too much baking soda/alka-seltzer, which reacts with the acid, creating gas and
导致胃的破裂
causing them to burst.
我确信你做过一个把醋和小苏打放在塑料袋子里的实验
I’m sure you’ve done experiments with vinegar and baking soda in a ziploc bag.
但是后来 像Charles Domery这样的传奇食者出现了
But then there are people like legendary eater Charles Domery.
在一天之内 Domery吃掉了十磅牛肉 四磅生牛乳 两磅蜡
In one day Domery ate 10 pounds of raw beef, 4 pounds of raw cow udders, 2 pounds of candles
以及三大瓶啤酒 总共20磅食物
and 3 large bottles of beer, a total of 20lbs.
在十六世纪90年代 第一次反法联盟战争中他服役于普鲁士军队
In the 1790s he was in the Prussian Army during the War of the First Coalition against France
但他最终因为法国食物供给量更大 而离开了联盟转而加入法国军事集团
but ended up deserting and joining the French military since their food rations were larger.
还有像Takeru这样的专业吃货 能吃下18磅牛脑
Then there are professional eaters like Takeru Kobayashi who ate 18 pounds of cow brains
在十五分钟内
in 15 minutes.
如今看来这似乎是一件荒诞的事情 但人们吃的东西已经更加奇怪了
Now that might seem like a weird thing to eat, but people have eaten weirder.
异食癖是一种你渴望并且吃下像灰尘 纸张 金属
Pica is a disorder where you crave and eat nonfood items like dirt, paper, metal and
粉笔 等非食物的身体紊乱疾病
chalk.
Michael Lotito因食用一些你一般不会吃的东西而著名
Michael Lotito was famous for eating things you generally wouldn’t.
他吃下了一架15磅的自行车 一个棺材 并且在两年内 他吃了一架飞机
He ate a 15 pound bicycle, a coffin and, over the course of 2 years, an airplane.
值得庆幸的是 他只吃掉了飞机而不是乘客
Luckily he just ate airplanes and not people.
库鲁病是一种非常罕见的疾病 它会破坏神经系统
Kuru is a very rare disease that attacks the nervous system and one that you can generally
接着你通常只食用用人类的大脑组织
only get from eating human brain tissue.
这种疾病发生在巴布亚新几内亚的部落地区 人们分食
It came about in the tribal regions of Papua New Guinea where people would cannibalize
在他们逝去亲人的葬礼上死了的亲属 在葬礼的过程中
their dead relatives during funeral rites.
所以还是不要吃人类大脑 或者是说不要吃人类
So don’t eat human brains…or just don’t eat people.
还记得Charles Domery吗
Remember Charles Domery?
他曾想吃掉在海战中失去腿的同船水手的那条腿
He tried eating the leg of a shipmate who had it blown off in a sea battle.
饥饿会使你做出疯狂的举动 但我们的身体总会阻止我们
Hunger can you make you do crazy things, but our bodies are always protecting us.
一般来说 它不会让我们吃的太多而爆炸 同样会在
In general, it wont let us eat so much that we explode and will try to protect us when
我们吃了有害健康的东西时对我们进行保护
we put harmful things in it.
我们的摄食量不可能像Kirby一样大 而且Kirby还有另一个特异功能
We can’t swallow as much as Kirby but Kirby has another characteristic – when he inhales
当他吃掉人们时 还可以吸收他们的能力这与我们处理食物的方式非常相似
people he can also absorb their traits…and that is very similar to what we do with food.
我们吸收营养 这些必需的营养物质保证我们的身体运动 大脑功能
We absorb the nutrients, the pieces necessary to keep our bodies moving, our brains functioning,
肠胃消化以及唾液分泌
our stomachs digesting and our saliva flowing.
所有这些功能加在一起 我们才能够工作和生活所以你可以说 人如其食
All these little pieces come together to make us work so you could say that you are what
如果你吃过人类的话 这句话就会更贴切些 最后一如既往 谢谢观看
you eat…which is even more true if you eat people…and as always…thanks for watching!

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