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你有多愤怒竟然取决于谁在看 – 译学馆
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你有多愤怒竟然取决于谁在看

How Morally Outraged Are You? Well, That Depends on Who’s Watching | Molly Crockett

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道德义愤是一种很强烈的情感
Moral outrage is a very powerful emotion that
激励我们去羞辱或惩罚那些
motivates us to shame and punish people who
破坏社会法则 伤害我们或我们在意之人的人
have broken some social rule, who have harmedus or someone we care about in some way.
道德义愤有很多好处 但也有很多代价
And there are many benefits of moral outrage,but there are also many costs.
好处可以分为两大类
So the benefits can fall into two broad categories.
第一类是社会效益
The first category of benefit is social benefits.
当我们表达对某种错误行为的愤怒 这可以告诉别人
So when we express outrage about some kindof wrongdoing, that teaches others that that
这种行为是不能容忍的 这样可以刺激其他人遵守道德
kind of behavior is not going to be tolerated,and it can motivate other people to behave
以避免自己因为破坏规则而丢脸或被惩罚
morally so that they can avoid getting shamedor punished for breaking the rules.
道德义愤的另一类好处是个人的
The other kind of benefit that moral outragebrings out is personal.
道德义愤向你社交圈子里的人表示 你是
Moral outrage broadcasts to the rest of yoursocial group that you are the kind of person
不会破坏规则的
who is not likely to break the rules.
这两类表达义愤的益处必须要和代价平衡
So these two benefits of expressing outragehave to be balanced against the costs of outrage.
表达义愤会有一些风险 尤其是在日常生活中
So expressing outrage carries some risks,particularly in the day to day world.
比如说 如果你在大街上接近一个乱扔垃圾的陌生人
If you approach a stranger on the street—let’s say for littering—
他们可能会报复你
there’s a chance they might retaliate against you.
他们可能会动手打你
There’s a chance that they could physicallyaggress against you.
我们见过真实的这种悲剧
We saw a really tragic case of
有人因表达道德规范并且尝试
the huge possible costs of expressing
劝别人遵守规范付出了惨痛代价
moral norms and trying to regulate bad behavior
今年早些时候在波特兰 有几个人
earlier this year in Portland when a couple of people, really
非常勇敢的人 在波特兰的市郊往返列车上 试图制止
brave people lost their lives for trying torein in someone who was expressing racist
有些人种族主义的言论时 失去了生命
comments on a commuter train in Portland.
所以 表达义愤可能会带来危险
So it can be risky to express outrage.
可能会让人不安 让人紧张 当面告诉别人他们
It can be uncomfortable, stressful; tellingsomebody to their face that they’ve done
做错了事情有时会很尴尬
something wrong is just awkward sometimes.
所以在表达义愤时 一定要在代价和收益之间权衡
So when we are expressing outrage we reallyhave to weigh these costs against the benefits.
进化也使我们在人际交往和面对面交流时做出
And evolution has equipped us with a reallyfine-tuned calculus for making these kinds
精明的决定
of decisions in interpersonal and face toface interactions.
如果道德义愤是火 那网络就像汽油
If moral outrage is a fire, the internet islike gasoline.
当我们考虑表达义愤代价和收益时 社交媒体做的就是
So when we think about the costs, of benefitsof expressing outrage, what social media does
降低代价 放大收益
is it turns down all the costs and dials upthe benefits.
在社交媒体上表达义愤比在线下更容易
So expressing outrage on social media is wayeasier than expressing it offline.
代价更小
It’s less costly.
你要做的就是按一下按钮
You can do it with the click of a button.
你可以加入一大群人 躲在人群里面能极大
You can join a large crowd, so hiding amongsta lot of other people really takes down the
降低表达对破坏规则之人的义愤的危险
riskiness of expressing outrage towards aperson who has broken some norm.
当然 收益也会增加
And, of course, it dials up the benefits.
你会得到社交反馈 朋友的赞 转发 分享什么的
You’re getting social feedback, likes fromyour friends, retweets, shares.
当然 社交媒体上的观众也比线下多得多
And the audience, of course, is so much biggeron social media than it is offline.
所以线上表达义愤得到的声誉也
So the reputational benefits of expressingoutrage are massively bigger when you take
高得多
it online.
涉及到声誉问题 道德义愤就变得很有趣
So moral outrage is really interesting becauseof its reputational benefits.
比如说 可以拿它跟网络暴力来对比
And it can be contrasted with cyber bullyingfor example.
二者都是暴力性的行为 但是前者表明你有道德
Both are aggressive kinds of behaviors, butthe one expresses that you are a morally good
而后者则完全相反
person, and the other has rather the oppositeeffect.
因此 网络暴力的研究似乎表明网上匿名
So research on cyber bullying seems to suggestthat anonymity that’s often found online
会增加网络暴力
increases cyber-bullying.
尽管很少有相关研究
There are fewer studies on this, but it seemslike
但是在网上表达道德义愤情况却似乎相反
the opposite occurs in the case of moral outrage expression online.
近期有一项研究调查了一个德国线上政治论坛中
So there’s one recent study that lookedat expressions of outrage in an online political
道德义愤的表达
forum in Germany.
在调查中 他们观察了匿名和实名情况下
And in this study they looked at the effects—ofbeing anonymous versus identified—on how
人们对社会政策评论中言论的激烈程度
aggressive the language was in these poststhat had to do with social policies.
事实上他们发现人们不匿名的时候 会对
And they actually found that people were expressingmore outrage about these moral political issues
政治道德问题表达更多的义愤
when they were not anonymous.
这看起来好像和网络暴力的情况正好相反
So that seems to contrast with what is typicallyseen for cyber bullying.
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