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“迷你大脑”对神经科学研究的贡献 – 译学馆
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“迷你大脑”对神经科学研究的贡献

How mini-brains could revolutionise neuroscience | Masters of Science

In terms of computational power,
单论算力
human brain is surpass to any animal in the animal kingdom
人的智商比其他任何动物都要高
It’s what makes us special,
我们因它变得特殊
but we still don’t understand how it arises,
但却不知道它是怎么提高上来的
and so that’s what me and my lab were trying to figure out.
为此 我的实验组一直在努力寻找答案
理学硕士系列 第三集
迷你大脑革命
The thing that makes our brains so special is the number of
我们的大脑特殊在
connection and the number of neurons
突触和神经元的数量
At about 80 to 100 billion neurons,
人脑中约有800到1000亿个神经元
that’s about three times more than our closest relatives, the chimpanzees.
这是我们的近亲黑猩猩的三倍
And so it’s thought that during human brain development
科学界据此推断 人脑发育过程中
neuron production really skyrockets.
神经元会大量增加
But when and how this happens is completely unknown.
但其发生时期与机制仍是一个谜
So to get the answers to these questions
为了找寻答案
we’ve turned to growing human brain tissues in the lab.
我们在实验室培养了人脑组织
In the past 10 years
在过去的十年中
there’s been a revolution in this field,
这一领域发生了一场革命
allowing researchers to generate 3D tissues
我们已经可以培养和真实器官
that look just like actual organs.
相似的三维组织了
And essentially, it involves taking stem cells, which have this amazing capacit
这本质上是在利用干细胞的特殊能力
to develop into any tissue of the body, including brain tissue,
在合适的条件下 干细胞可以分化成
if we give them the right conditions.
包括脑组织在内的任意身体组织
And those conditions include a three-dimensional gel,
条件之一是一种三维凝胶 它用于
which essentially mimics the surrounding tissue of the developing brain.
模拟在发育过程中包裹着人脑的那些组织
And what’s really amazing about this is that,
最令人兴奋的是
when these cells are kept in just the right conditions,
一旦环境匹配
they will then follow their own natural developmental programme,
干细胞会按照其自然状态分化发育
generating neurons with the same timing
体外培养神经元的形成时间与位置
and positioning as an actual human developing brain.
和其在实际大脑中的形成时间与位置相同
So because we have these 3D mini brain tissues in a dish,
正因为有这些培养出来的迷你脑组织
we now have access to human developing brain tissue in a way

我们找到了揭开脑组织发育奥秘的钥匙
that was never before possible.
这是从未有过的成功
We can actually really get hands-on,
我们可以直接动手实验了
and start looking inside of them by taking cross-sections,
通过截面图能观察到它的内部
looking at different cell types, and comparing
看到不同类型的细胞
different time points to see what changes over time.
还能比较不同时间下组织的变化
We can also do live imaging and actually watch
我们还可以对人类神经干细胞
as human neural stem cells do generate neurons,
分化成神经元的过程进行实时成像
and then watch those neurons position themselves.
并观察这些神经元是如何确定自身位置的
And this is something that was never before possible.
这在以前都是无法实现的
And so at the moment, we can observe these processes very well,
而现在已经能很好地观察分化过程了
but what we’d really like to do
但我们真正想做的是
is start to challenge the system and look at
通过变换培养条件
what’s controlling the skyrocketing neuron production
从而找到令神经元激增的原因
that we’re so interested in,
这才是我们感兴趣的
and get at the root of the question of what makes our brains so unique.
以及找到让人脑如此特殊的根本原因

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视频概述

本期视频介绍了让人脑变得如此特殊的原因以及科学家们现在对人脑特殊性的成因了解到了何种程度。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Aimik

审核员

审核员Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yS74uZ9T1XM

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