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英语中动词有多少种时态? – Anna Ananichuk – 译学馆
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英语中动词有多少种时态? - Anna Ananichuk

How many verb tenses are there in English? - Anna Ananichuk

语法时态
Grammatical tense
是语言在没有明确命名时间段的情况下
is how languages talk about time
表述时间的方式
without explicitly naming time periods
它通过修改动词形式来具体表述动作发生的时间
by, instead, modifying verbs to specify when action occurs.
那么 像英语这样的语言有多少不同的语法时态
So how many different tenses are there in a language like English?
起初 这个答案显然就是:
At first, the answer seems obvious:
过去时 现在时 将来时
there’s past, present, and future.
但是幸亏语法的存在
But thanks to something called grammatical aspect,
每一种时间段实际上又有更具体的划分
each of those time periods actually divides further.
于是就有了4种状态
There are four kinds of aspect.
进行时
In the continuous or progressive aspect,
是指在目前时间点动作仍在继续
the actions are still happening at the time of reference.
完成时描述的是动作已经做完
The perfect aspect describes actions that are finished.
而完成进行时则是一种组合时态
The perfect progressive aspect is a combination,
它描述的是动作一直持续到完成的部分
describing a completed part of a continuous action.
最后就是一般时
And finally, there’s the simple aspect,
基本形式就是一般过去 一般现在 一般将来
the basic form of the past, present, and future tense
表示并不确定动作是连续不断的还是很小心的
where an action is not specified as continuous or discreet.
所有这些都有点难以理解吧
That’s all a little hard to follow,
那么 我们来看看它是如何用于动作上的
so let’s see how it works in action.
比如说 你的朋友告诉你 为收集一种神秘海洋生物的信息
Let’s say your friends tell you they went on a secret naval mission
他们执行了一项秘密的海军任务
to collect evidence of a mysterious sea creature.
时态设置的参照时间框架是过去
The tense sets the overall frame of reference in the past,
但在这个过去的框架里 又有许多选项
but within that, there are many options.
你的朋友也许会说 一只生物攻击了他们的船
Your friends might say a creature attacked their boat,
那这就是一般过去式
that’s the past simple,
最常见的时态
the most general aspect,
没有更明细的划分
which gives no further clarification.
如果事情发生时 他们正在睡觉
They were sleeping when it happened,
那这就是发生在过去持续性的过程
a continuous process underway at that point.
他们或许也会告诉你 他们从楠塔基特岛出发
They might also tell you they had departed from Nantucket
来描述更早完成的动作
to describe an action completed even earlier.
这是个过去完成时的例子
That’s an example of the past perfect.
或者他们已经航行了3周
Or that they had been sailing for three weeks,
这是说明动作一直持续到过去的那个时间点
something that was ongoing up until that point.
在现在
In the present,
他们告诉你 今天他们仍在寻找那种生物
they tell you that they still search for the creature today,
那他们的动作体现的就是一般现在时
their present simple activity.
也许他们跟你说话的时候
Perhaps they are preparing for their next mission continuously
一直在准备下一个任务
as they speak.
为此 他们已建造了一艘特殊的潜艇
And they have built a special submarine for it,
这件事是已经完成的
a completed achievement.
另外 如果他们一直在搜索这种生物的蛛丝马迹
Plus, if they have been researching possible sightings of the creature,
那就是说他们过去已经搜寻了一段时间 现在仍在继续
it’s something they’ve been doing for a while and are still doing now
这就是现在完成进行时
making it present perfect progressive.
所以下一个任务是什么?
So what does this next mission hold?
这件事还没发生
You know it still hasn’t happened
因为下周他们才会出发
because they will depart next week,
这就是一般将来时
the future simple.
你的朋友将会一直探索这种神秘的生物
Your friends will be searching for the elusive creature,
这就是将来进行时
an extended continuous undertaking.
他们告诉你 从现在开始的未来1个月 潜艇将会下潜到未知的深度
They tell you the submarine will have reached uncharted depths a month from now.
这是一种确定性预测
That’s a confident prediction
在未来某一个具体的时间点 这件事就会完成
about what will be achieved by a specific point in the future,
到这个时间点 他们就航行3周了
a point at which they will have been voyaging for three weeks
这就是将来完成进行时
in the future perfect progressive.
无论是过去时 现在时 还是将来时
The key insight to all these different tenses
区分这些时态关键的不同点在于
is that each sentence takes place in a specific moment,
每一个句子发生的具体时刻
whether it’s past, present, or future.
每一种时态形式告诉你
The point of aspects is that they tell you as of that moment
动作发生的时间和所处的状态
the status of the action.
总计的话 英语中存在12种可能的形式
In total, they give us twelve possibilities in English.
那其他语言呢?
What about other languages?
比如法语 斯瓦西里语
Some, like French, Swahili,
俄语跟英语采取的方式有些像
and Russian take a similar approach to English.
其他语言对时间的表述与区分各不相同
Others describe and divide time differently.
一些语言中几乎不存在语法时态 比如日语
Some have fewer grammatical tenses, like Japanese,
只有过去与非过去之分
which only distinguishes past from non-past,
Buli和Tukang Basi
Buli and Tukang Basi,
用来区分将来与非将来
which only distinguish future from non-future,
汉语没有动词时态 只有状态
and Mandarin Chinese with no verb tenses at all, only aspect.
另一方面 如Yagwa
On the other hand, languages like Yagwa
它又把过去时分成几等
split past tense into multiple degrees,
比如动作发生的时间为几个小时 几周 或几年前
like whether something happened hours, weeks, or years ago.
其他语言中 时态又混杂着情绪
In others, tenses are intertwined with moods
用来表达紧急程度
that can convey urgency,
必要性 或者事情发生的可能性
necessity, or probability of events.
这就让翻译工作变得困难起来
This makes translation difficult
但也不是不可能
but not impossible.
大多数不同语言的演说家 说话都没有时态之分
Speakers of most languages without certain tenses
他们用辅助词比如would或did
can express the same ideas
或是具体的时间
with auxiliary words, like would or did,
来表达同样的想法
or by specifying the time they mean.
语言间的差异性
Are the variations from language to language
仅仅是描述相同现实的不同方式吗
just differents ways of describing the same fundamental reality?
或是它们的不同结构反映我们思考世界
Or do their diverse structures reflect different ways of thinking about the world
甚至时间本身的不同方式?
and even time itself?
如果情况如此
And if so,
那还有没有其他的方式表述时间呢?
what other ways of conceiving time may be out there?
Ted Ed还不完美
Teded is non prefect.
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If you done your work, please consider supporting it on patreon.com/Teded.

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视频概述

不同语言的语法时态可能表述了我们看待世界与时间的不同方式。

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视频来源

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