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宇宙中有多少星星? – 译学馆
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宇宙中有多少星星?

How Many Stars Are In The Universe?

嗨 欢迎来到”一点生活”!
Hey there and welcome to Life Noggin!
纵观人类历史 人们对夜空总是充满了兴趣-
Throughout human history, people have been fascinated with the night sky — plotting
计算星球位置 通过望远镜观察他们
the positions of the stars, gazing at them through telescopes, and playing a massive-scale
画出大量的星图版本
version of connect the dots.
对好奇的宇航员来说 幸运的是有很多星星
And luckily for curious astronomers, there are /lots/ of stars out there.
单在银河系 就有大约10至40亿万的行星
In the Milky Way galaxy alone, there’s estimated to be between 100 and 400 billion stars.
在整个能观察到的宇宙中大约有20亿万星系
And in the entire observable Universe, there’s estimate to be around 200 billion galaxies.
所以 对 有很多这种东西 -也因为这个
So, yeah, there’s a bunch of these things out there — and because of that, it’s probably
对于他们知道的越多可能是件好事
a good thing that you know more about them.
开始时 让我们去猎户星座的星云看看
And to start, let’s make our way over to a nebula in the constellation Orion and check
HOPS-383 一个新行星的开端
out HOPS-383, the humble beginnings of a new star.
他作为原恒星闻名 在那儿云和气
This is known as a protostar, where sections of clouds of gas in space have collapsed under
在重力下崩塌
their own gravity.
这使得中心变得越来越热 越来越密集 将能量辐射出去
This causes the center to become hotter and denser and for it to radiate energy away,
使其继续崩塌
collapsing it further.
直到最后 在数百万年以后 当行星变得足够热时
Until eventually, after millions and millions of years, when the star gets hot enough where
它的核心温度超过1千万K 就会变成矮星
its core temperature is above 10 million Kelvin, it becomes a main sequence star.
欢迎来到成人世界 我年轻的朋友啊-从这儿开始就全是下坡路了
Welcome to the adult world, young friend — it’s all downhill from here.
这是行星生命的一个阶段 这时核聚变发生
This is the stage of a star’s life where nuclear fusion occurs, turning hydrogen into
将核心的氢变为氦
helium in its core.
这不仅能产生你看到的星光 而且会导致
Not only does this produce the light you see coming from a star, but it also results in
流体静力学平衡 内里的重力会抵消掉
hydrostatic equilibrium, where the inward force of gravity is balanced out by outward
外部的气体和辐射压力
gas and radiation pressure.
如果你在寻找这样案例的行星 你不必看的太远
And if you’re looking for an example of one of these stars, you need look no further
你生命之光-太阳
than the light of your life — the Sun.
实际上 宇宙中的许多行星都处在它们生命中的这个阶段
In fact, a lot of stars in the Universe are in this stage of their lives and they vary
他们变化无穷
widely.
我是说 看看赫茨普龙·罗素表吧!
I mean, just take a look at the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram[e]!
这个了不起的工具十分方便的告诉你关于一颗行星的温度 亮度
This awesome tool conveniently tells you information about a star’s temperature, luminosity,
颜色甚至更多的信息
color, and more.
这颗主序星从左上角显示热的恒星跨到右下角显示冷的恒星
And the main sequence stars span from the upper left showing the hot numulet star to the bottom right showing the cool fixed star
哦 看到这些底部的字了吗?
Oh, and see those letters down at the bottom?
这是由Annie Jump Cannon 于十九世纪早期基于恒星光谱
That’s a classification scheme created by Annie Jump Cannon in the early 1900s based
创作的分类体制
on stellar spectra.
热恒星是O型星 冷恒星是M型星
Hotter stars are O stars and cooler stars are M stars.
按照行星的年纪和特征变化 他们在HR光谱上的位置
And as stars age and their characteristics change, their position on the HR Diagram will
会变化
change as well.
接近一个行星生命的终极时 核心的氢会完全释放
Toward the end of a star’s life, it will run out of hydrogen in its core and leave
离开主序列阶段
the main sequence stage.
像太阳一样的恒星 他最终会变成红巨星……
For a star like the Sun, it will eventually turn into a red giant … that may or may
这可能会 可能不会完全摧毁地球……这样不好哦 太阳公公!
not completely destroy the Earth … not cool, Sun!
从这儿开始 最后所有的核聚变都会停止 行星也会从里崩坍
From here, eventually, any nuclear fusion will completely stop and the star will collapse
变成小小的 密度很大的白矮星
inward and become a tiny and incredibly dense white dwarf.
当然 只不是行星结束生命的唯一方法-其他的会以
Of course, that’s not the only way a star can end its life — others may die in a Type
Ⅱ型超新星的形式变成密度极大的中子星
II supernova producing dense neutron stars.
其他的可能会变成黑洞
And others may even form stellar black holes.
行星真是些戏剧性的存在啊 对吧?
Stars sure do like to make dramatic exits, huh?
所以 你是怎样看待这些的呢?
So what do you think of all this?
这会使你在仰望星空时有所不同吗?
Will this make you look at the night sky differently?
让我知道你们的想法在下面的评论区里
Let me know in the comments below.
保证每周一你们都能看到一个全新的视频
Make sure you come back every Monday for a brand new video.
一如既往地 我是Blocko 这里是”一点生活”
As always, I’m Blocko and this has been Life Noggin.
别忘了开动脑筋思考哦!
Don’t forget to keep on thinking!

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视频概述

科普视频。关于灿烂星空的有趣知识。一颗行星的生与死。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Sallyzhe

审核员

审核团H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAMW51dC7Mk

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