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没有了太阳我们还能活多久

How Long Would We Have to Live if the Sun Went Out?

Your alarm clock goes off.
闹钟响起
You rise, stretch and look out the window.
你起床了 伸个懒腰 看向窗外
Ah, another bright and sunny morning.
啊 又是一个阳光明媚的早晨
You’re walking the dog when all of a sudden, it goes dark, poof!
你正遛着狗呢 突然暗了下来 噗!
–like God turned off a gigantic light switch.
就像上帝关掉了一只巨大的灯
You look up into the sky, you can see a few distant stars, but the sun is gone.
看看天 还能看到遥远的星星 但太阳消失了
The automatic street lights come on as you rush home.
匆匆赶回家 路上自动街灯亮了起来
What’s going on?
怎么回事?
Reports on the internet and TV seem to indicate that the sun’s burned out.
网络和电视的新闻好像是说太阳燃尽了
But that couldn’t happen, right?
但怎么可能啊?
The sun couldn’t suddenly extinguish, could it?
太阳不可能突然消失 是吧?
What would happen to humanity if it did?
如果真那样人类怎么办?
How long could we survive if the sun went out?
没有了太阳我们能活多久?
There have been a couple of times throughout history
历史上曾经有那么几次
where natural phenomena has affected the sun’s ability to reach and warm the earth.
受自然现象影响 阳光难以到达和温暖地球
Notably, this happened in 1816 which became widely known as ‘The Year Without A Summer’.
尤其是众所周知的“无夏之年”1816年
On April 10, 1815, Mount Tambora in Indonesia erupted
1815年4月10日 印尼坦博拉火山爆发
spraying estimated 9.8 cubic miles
喷射出估计9.8立方英里
or 10 billion tonnes of pyroclastic ash into the atmosphere
或100亿吨的火山灰到大气里
along with several gases including carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride.
还伴着二氧化碳 二氧化硫 氯化氢等各种气体
Ultimately the volcanic eruption caused severe climate abnormalities for the next few years
结果这场火山爆发导致接下来几年的气候都严重异常
including limited sun and a lack of summer in the Northern Hemisphere in 1816.
包括1816年北半球光照不足和没有了夏天
In New England, there were several large snow falls in June.
新英格兰六月降了好几场大雪
Lakes stayed iced over for the entire year in parts of Pennsylvania.
宾夕法尼亚部分地区湖面冰冻了一整年
Salem, Massachusetts had triple digits in early July,
马塞诸塞州塞勒姆镇的温度在七月头还是三位数
but on the 4th of July reports indicate that the temperature fell into the 30s and 40s.
而7月4日天气报告就显示温度降至华氏30到40度
In August a hard freeze dominated New Hampshire and Maine.
八月新汉普郡和缅因州遭遇强烈寒流
The temperature fluctuations were detrimental to crops around the world
温度波动对全球农作物都不利
and ultimately caused famine in many regions.
最终导致多地饥荒
Famine led to disease and a cholera epidemic, killing millions.
饥荒导致疾病和霍乱流行 死亡无数
Mass migration happened as people tried to escape food shortages.
为了躲避饥荒 人们开始大量迁移
The Year without a Summer also led to religious revivals
“无夏之年”还导致了宗教复苏
as apocalyptic preachers thought
因为末日启示的先知们认为
the world was ending and urged people to get right with God.
世界末日将至 人们要争取与上帝同在的权利
The surface of the Sun is an astounding 5,800 Kelvin,
太阳表面的温度高达骇人的5800开尔文
hot enough to melt or vaporize any substance known to man
热得足以熔化或挥发掉人们知道的一切物质
including diamond or graphene.
包括钻石和石墨烯
Thankfully earth is rough 93 million miles (150 million km) away from the sun,
好在地球离太阳9.3千万英里(15千万千米)远
where the temperatures are much cooler.
这里的温度低了很多
The sun is just far away enough from earth
正因为太阳离地球足够远
to create ideal temperatures for supporting life.
才为地球上的生命提供了理想的温度
Scientifically, the sun wouldn’t just stop burning and go out.
科学角度看 太阳不会突然不燃烧了 就此熄灭了
When stars die, they expand.
星星死亡时会膨胀
Most likely, the sun will expand into a red giant star,
最可能的情况是 太阳会膨胀成一个红巨星
and vaporize the inner planets of our solar system
当它毁灭时会将太阳系的所有星球
including the earth as it collapses and dies.
包括地球 蒸发殆尽
However, the sun evolving into a red giant star will take 7 or 8 billion years,
但太阳需要70-80亿年才能发展成巨大的红球
so don’t worry too much about this happening.
所以不必太担心这情况发生
However, let’s pretend that the sun suddenly just disappeared.
不过我们来假设太阳突然消失了
Citizens of earth actually wouldn’t know what happened for a few minutes
其实地球上的居民在几分钟内不会知道发生了什么
because the last of the sun’s rays would still be on their way to our planet.
因为最后一缕阳光还在去往地球的途中
Depending on where the earth is in its orbit,
取决于地球位于公转轨道中的位置
at the speed of light, which is roughly 671,000,000 miles per hour (1,080,000,000 km/hour),
以光的速度 大约671,000,000英里/小时(1,080,000,000千米/小时)
light from the sun reaches earth in just under 8 and a half minutes.
光在不到8.5分钟就能从太阳到达地球
So if the sun suddenly disappeared,
所以如果太阳突然消失
it would be 8 and a half minutes before the earth went dark.
再过8.5分钟地球才会变暗
After that depending on where you are in the world,
之后 取决于你在地球的什么位置
you would be able to see the moon and the planets in our solar system for the next several hours,
接下来几小时中你会看到月球和太阳系的星球
until the residual sunlight stopped reflecting.
直到太阳的余光消亡
The sky would definitely be darker than normal,
天空绝对会比平时更黑
because we’re use to ambient light coming from the moon.
因为我们平时还有月光
Distant stars would continue to shine
远处的星会继续闪耀
and we would continue to have man made light
我们还有人造灯光可用
as electricity would continue to work…for a while.
因为电力还会运转…一段时间
The earth would immediately begin to cool.
地球会突然开始降温
Within about a week of the sun vanishing,
太阳消亡一周左右
earth’s average surface temperature would drop to 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 Celsius).
地球的平均温度就会将至32华氏度(0摄氏度)
After a year without sun, the temperature would be negative 150 degrees Fahrenheit (-101 Celsius).
失去太阳一年后温度将是-150华氏度(-101摄氏度)
Over time the earth would become an ice planet,
随着时间的推移 地球将会成为冰冻的星球
rivers, lakes and the oceans would freeze on the surface.
地球表面的河流 湖泊 海洋都会冰冻
Depending on depth, the water underneath would continue to remain liquid for thousands of years,
根据深度的不同 地下水还会在几千年内保持液态
insulated by the surface ice.
它们被地球表面的冰隔离
Just as much of a problem as the cold, is that crops, in fact most plant life would rapidly die.
由于寒冷 农作物 事实上大部分地球生物都会很快死亡
Without the sun, photosynthesis would immediately cease.
没有了太阳 光合作用会马上停止
The majority of plants would be dead within a few weeks.
大部分植物会在几周内死亡
Large healthy trees could possibly survive for several decades without photosynthesis,
大型健康树木没有光合作用还可能存活数十年
due to slow metabolism and substantial sugar stores.
这得益于它们低的新陈代谢和大量的糖类储备
However that assumes that the trees wouldn’t be decimated for food or kindling
但前提是假设那些树不会被当作食物而大批毁灭或被当作燃料
Plants are autotrophs or primary producers in the food chain
植物是自养生物或食物链中的主要生产者
so as they die off, herbivores would quickly follow.
所以它们一旦死亡 接着就是食草动物
Then they would be followed by carnivores.
然后是食肉动物
Scavengers, assuming they could survive within the cold would hang on a little longer.
食腐动物如果能忍受寒冷 那它们可能会活得久一点
Another problem if the sun suddenly vanished is that
太阳突然消失还有一个问题
it would disrupt the orbits of the heavenly bodies in our solar system.
就是它会干扰太阳系中天体的运行轨迹
The sun’s gravitational mass controls orbit;
太阳的引力质量控制着轨道
everything: planets, passing comets, etcetera
任何东西 包括星球 穿过的彗星等等
would now continue their forward velocity in a straight line, heading off into space.
都会以现在的速度直直地冲向太空
That means for the earth we’d move towards distant stars
对于地球 这意味着我们将以67,000英里/小时(107,826千米/小时)的速度
at 67,000 mph 107,826 km/ph).
冲向远处的星球
Theoretically earth could get caught in the gravitational pull of another star
理论上 地球会被另一个星球的引力捕获
and begin orbiting it.
而开始围绕它运行
However, that’s a process that would take several thousand years.
但这个过程需要几千年
Now that you have a sense of some of the underlying issues that would occur in the long run,
既然你已经了解 太阳消失引发的长远的潜在问题
let’s return to our scenario from the beginning.
那让我们回到最开始的情节吧
You rush home from walking the dog because the sun suddenly vanishes.
正在遛狗的你因为太阳突然消失而冲回家里
Within the first 24 hours widespread panic has ensued,
24小时内就会继而出现大恐慌
social upheaval is happening
社会剧变发生
and society is breaking down.
社会土崩瓦解
Immediately after the sun winks out,
太阳一熄灭
the media and internet will flood with a bazillion theories
媒体和网络就会涌现出铺天盖地无数理论
as to what’s happening and why.
来解释发生了什么 为何会这样
It’s the end of the world.
世界末日来临了
God has forsaken us.
上帝抛弃我们了
Aliens have destroyed or blocked our sun.
外星人破坏或封锁了我们的太阳
North Korea or Russia or whichever enemy country has killed the sun!
北朝鲜或俄国或其他敌国消灭了太阳
It won’t take long before people begin to loot and riot.
很快人们就开始争抢和暴乱
Sure governments will attempt to implement martial law and to keep control,
政府一定会实施军事管制来控制局势
but within a few days everyone, everywhere will be severely affected by the cold,
但几天内所有人所有地方都将被严寒侵袭
if not already dead from it.
前提是如果还没被冻死的话
Warmer regions will maintain higher temperatures longer,
暖和点的地方能维持高温久一点
but the residents will be even less prepared for the cold
但那儿的居民对寒冷更没准备
as their manner of dress and housing is often designed to maximize cooling.
因为他们穿衣住房的方式都是为了尽可能凉爽
Extremely cold climates such as the Arctic will rapidly become unbearable.
很快就会没法忍受像北极一样的极寒气候
If the sun vanishes while it’s winter in the Northern Hemisphere,
如果太阳消亡时北半球正值冬天
humans and other life dying off would accelerate.
那人类和其他生命会更快死掉
As the poles of the earth cooled,
随着地球的两极降温
the overall atmospheric height would begin to drop as density grew.
整个大气层都会随密度增加而高度下降
As the atmosphere drops, strong winds would begin to blow towards the equator worldwide.
随着大气层下降 强风将开始吹向全球的赤道
These winds would increasingly grow colder and disrupt the jet stream,
强风会渐冷 扰乱射流
most likely creating strong currents at ground level.
极可能产生地面上的强对流
The water vapor in our atmosphere would condense
大气中的水蒸气会凝结
and it would snow in most regions of the world.
全世界大部分地区都会降雪
Many places would be hit with blizzards.
很多地方都会遭遇暴风雪
In addition to cold, wild weather,
除了寒冷和恶劣天气
our atmosphere would begin to separate into its component gasses by density.
我们大气里的组成气体会开始根据密度分解
The higher density elements would drift to ground level
密度高的气体会飘落地面
and the lower density gases would rise,
密度低的气体会上升
thus disrupting the amount of breathable air available.
于是破坏了可以呼吸的空气量
There’s also the possibility that within the first 24 hours of the sun disappearing
也可能在太阳刚消失的24小时里
a country would launch a nuclear weapon
某个国家会启动核武器
to retaliate against another country they deemed responsible
去对他们认为导致太阳消失的国家实施报复
and start a nuclear war.
于是核战争爆发
Luckily no country started a nuclear war,
如果幸运 没有国家发动核战争
it’s summer in the Northern Hemisphere and
而且太阳消失时正值北半球的夏天
you were living on the west coast of the US when the sun disappeared.
而你正住在美国西海岸
Living near the ocean is helpful,
住在海洋附近对你是有好处的
as the water will slow the surface cooling in your region.
因为海水会减慢你那里地面温度的降低
You were smart,
你很明智
you spent a few hours braving the weather and other people to loot items
几小时后你就开始勇敢面对天气以及抢夺物资的人
that would help sustain your life
那些物资有助于你维持生存
such as cold weather clothing, first aid supplies, fuel and non perishable food.
比如防寒服 急救物品 燃料以及不易腐烂的食物
After that, you and your family barricaded yourselves in your house.
之后 你和你的家人将自己堵在家中
Assuming your group can stay alive for the next few days,
假如接下来几天你们能存活下来
the danger from other humans rapidly becomes far less of a problem
那来自其他人类的威胁很快就不是问题了
as the majority of the population dies off from hypothermia,
因为大部分人都将死于低体温症
starvation, hypoxia, or violence.
饥饿 缺氧或暴力
The first to pass away will be the old, infirm or very young.
最先死亡的将是年老体弱或幼小的人
As society breaks down and people die, your electricity stops working.
随着社会瓦解和人们死亡 你的供电也会停止
In fact, as your town used solar powered street lights,
事实上 由于你的镇上以前用的是太阳能街灯
there’s been limited light from the start of this catastrophe.
灾难一来就没什么灯会亮了
No electricity means no TV, internet
没有电力意味着没有电视 网络
and as your house had electric heating, no heat.
而且由于你的房子靠电取暖 于是也没了取暖
As people struggle to keep themselves warm
由于人们努力为自己保暖
and resort to fire for light and heat,
并依靠火来照明和取暖
it’s possible that large swathes of cities could end up burning as people’s fires get beyond their control.
人们用火失控 有可能大量城市会毁于火灾
While the fires won’t accelerate because of hot conditions,
由于温度原因 火势不会加剧
there’s too few people to try to put the fires out either.
也不会有人去灭火 因为几乎没多少人了
But your dwelling doesn’t catch fire.
但你的住所没有着火
As you live slightly inland,
由于你住在靠内陆的地方
thankfully you weren’t inundated with coastal flooding due to the wild weather and tidal changes.
很幸运 你没有被恶劣气候和潮汐改变引发的沿海洪灾淹没
Three days after the sun vanishes
太阳消亡三天后
, your group emerges out of hiding to a grotesque winter wonderland.
你们一家走出门看到一个怪诞的冬日奇境
Most of the population is dead,
大部分人已经死了
there’s always the potential for violence,
暴力随时可能发生
however most of the remaining survivors are willing to work together.
但大部分幸存者都更愿意合作
Your only chance for survival would be to rapidly build an artificial temperature controlled habitat to live in.
存活的唯一机会就是快速建一个可以控制温度的人工住所
The best bet would be to burrow into the earth and live deep underground.
最好是挖洞住在地下深处
Away from tectonic plate boundaries,
避开地壳构造板块边界
geothermal temperature rises about 1°F per 70 feet of depth
在世界大部分地方 每深70英尺地热温度上升1华氏度
(25 °C per km of depth) in most of the world.
(每深1千米温度升25摄氏度)
So if you were able to create a habitat roughly a mile (1.6 km) underground,
所以 如果能在约一英里深的地下建一个住所
you could live at a balmy 75.5 °F (24.1 °C) degrees.
你就能在75.5华氏度(24.1摄氏度)的舒适温度中生活
That is assuming you could create and maintain a society
它的前提是你能建立和维持这样的社会
that had cooperative citizens, sustainable food sources and breathable air systems.
它有合作的居民 充足的食物来源和可以呼吸的空气系统
Also you would need good artificial light and possibly mood enhancers.
你还需要良好的人造光 可能还要情绪调节剂
Sunlight is a natural pick me up for humans.
阳光是人类天然的提振剂
Other options might be to build a habitat underwater near geothermal vents.
还可以在水下的地热出口处附近建住所
If you lived in Iceland,
如果你住在冰岛
you would probably have a head start using geothermal energy to heat your habitat.
你可能会考虑用地热能来为住所取暖
So if the sun vanished, the majority of humanity would perish in under a week.
所以如果太阳消亡 大部分人将在一周内死亡
If you’re willing to prepare for this possibility ahead of time by building an underground domain,
如果你愿意为这种可能性提前建造地下王国
you might be able to sustain the human race
就可能建起一个黑客帝国般的
by creating a Matrix like society of
由皮肤苍白的鼹鼠人组成的悲哀社会
sad, pasty skin mole people.
从而实现人类物种的延续
What’s the first action you would take to survive if the sun suddenly vanished?
如果太阳突然消亡 你会马上做什么来求生呢?
Let us know in the comments!
请在留言区告诉我们
Also, be sure to check out our other video called How Did A Whole Village Disappear?
同时请观看我们另一个视频 名为《一整个村庄是如何消失的?》
The Lost Colony of Roanoke Mystery!
殖民地罗阿诺克岛消失之谜
Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t forget to like, share, and subscribe.
感谢观看 同样 记得点赞 分享和订阅哦
See you next time!
回见!

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视频概述

设想了太阳消亡后人类可能面临的种种

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Joanna.J

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PngGVt0ZKoc

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