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断头台处刑后人能活多久?

How Long did a Person Stay Alive after being Guillotined?

How long did a person’s head stay alive after being guillotined?
断头台处刑后人的头还能活多久?
Beheading is a form of execution has been around for centuries.
斩首是一种存在了数世纪的处决方式
By 1792, during the time of the French Revolution,
1792年 法国大革命期间
it had become a highly efficient and quick form of execution
它就成为了一种高效迅速的处决方式
in the shape of the now famous guillotine.
也就是如今著名的断头台
King Louis XVI himself signed the bill
国王路易十六曾亲自签署法案
that made the guillotine the official method of execution.
使断头台成为正式的处决方式
The guillotine was a tall wooden structure first used in revolutionary France
断头台最早在法国革命时被使用 它是一种高大的木质结构
for beheading someone using a heavy slanted blade
通过顺着垂直凹槽突然掉落的沉重的斜刃
that suddenly dropped down a set of vertical grooves.
对犯人进行斩首
It would usually chop the condemned person’s head off in one clean action,
通常一下就能干净利落地砍掉死刑犯的脑袋
whereupon the severed head with unceremoniously dropped into a basket below.
之后断头就随意滚进下面的筐中
Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin, whom it was named after,
断头台的名字来自医生约瑟夫·吉约坦
claimed that the guillotine made execution as painless as possible.
他声称 断头台尽可能减轻了处刑的痛苦
However, later on the device was also known as
不过后来这台装置也被称为
Madame la Guillotine, la Dame (the Lady),
断头台夫人 夫人
la Veuve (the Widow), le Rasoir National (the National Razor), and Louisette.
寡妇 国民剃刀 或者路易塞特
But was the execution buyer truly painless?
但是被处刑的犯人真的毫无痛苦吗?
There is a famous story about the execution of Charlotte Corday
有一个著名的故事 是关于在1793年法国大革命期间
by the guillotine in 1793 during the French Revolution.
使用断头台处决夏绿蒂·柯黛的
Just after she had been beheaded, a member of the crowd left forward
就在她刚刚被砍下头时 人群中有人走上前
and slapped poor Charlotte across the face to see if she was still conscious.
扇了可怜的夏绿蒂一巴掌 看她是否还有知觉
It’s reported that her face then blushed at the indignity of being slapped.
据报道 她的脸因受掌掴所辱而涨红
There are even stories of how heads blink after being guillotined.
甚至还有故事说人被砍头后还能眨眼睛
Antoine Lavoisier was a French scientist at the height of the French Revolution in 1794.
拉瓦锡是1794年法国大革命高潮时期的一名科学家
He was condemned to death during the Reign of Terror,
他在恐怖统治时期被判死刑
and supposedly agreed to blink after his head was guillotined
并且据说他被处决之后还能眨眼睛
as one last experiment for science,
以此作为他最后一个科学实验
His servants noted that Lavoisier blinked up to 15 seconds after the execution.
他的仆人记录称 拉瓦锡被处死后眨了多达15秒眼睛
Though there are many stories like this claiming
尽管有许多类似的故事传言
that lucid-decapitation or consciousness exists momentarily after beheading,
人在斩首时仍保持清醒或者之后仍有短暂意识
and no these stories are based on real people in real events,
但这些故事并非基于真人真事
they are most likely exaggerations or anecdotes
它们极可能是夸大之词或是逸闻趣事
that have become embellished over time by countless retellings.
在经过无数人的口耳相传后渐渐失真
However, it’s often been wondered by scientists how long the head keeps on functioning
不过 科学家们想知道的是
after it’s been guillotined from the body.
在身首分离后 头还能再活多久
One of the chief reasons for the introduction of the guillotine was that
采用断头台的主要原因之一是
it was deemed to be very humane.
它被认为是非常人道的
But some factions in the medical community were seriously questioning this.
但医学界的一些派系对此提出了严重质疑
Doctor Samuel Thomas Submarine theorized
塞缪尔·托马斯·萨莫林博士推论称
that in fact a decapitated head could continue to live
事实上 被斩的头颅依旧能继续存活
and feel for up to a full 15 minutes after being guillotined,
并在斩首后保持长达15分钟的意识
and therefore the suffering was worse than death by hanging.
因此断头台斩首比绞刑更加痛苦
But Dr. Jean Sédillot,
但是让·塞迪略博士
a leading pioneer of modern day medicine at that time,
当时的一位现代医学先锋人物
counterargued that the difference between killing a person
反驳称 对人斩首
or butcher killing an animal by severing its head resulted in the same effect,
与屠夫砍下畜牲的头并没有区别
immediate death and total end of life.
二者都是立即死亡并结束生命
Others such as Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis argued that
其他人如乔治·卡巴尼斯争论称
victims did not suffer once guillotined
受刑者被斩首后就不再痛苦
because the nape of the neck is where death can be caused
因为砍下脖颈能导致人或动物
instantly in people and animals.
立即死亡
The twitches in the severed heads were, in his opinion,
在他看来 被砍下的头抽搐
purely mechanical muscle movements without consciousness.
纯粹是无意识的肌肉痉挛
There has been many well-documented cases of animals,
有许多记录完好的动物案例
like chickens, cockroaches, frogs, snakes and praying mantis
比如鸡 蟑螂 青蛙 蛇和螳螂
surviving for a long period of time after they’ve been decapitated.
被切下头后仍能活很长一段时间
For example, there are many accounts and videos of rattlesnakes that have beheaded,
举个例子 有许多报道和录像表明 响尾蛇被切下头后
and still have been able to bite people with their head.
它的头依旧能够咬人
Because the guillotine was used in France all the way up until 1977,
由于法国直至1977年一直在使用断头台
there has been scientific research carried out
所以有科学实验
using more advanced methodology on actual guillotined human heads.
采用更先进的方法研究真正被斩首的人头
It has been widely reported that sometimes
据广泛报道
you will see some eye and mouth movements from a guillotined head,
有时你能看到被砍掉的脑袋上眼睛和嘴巴仍在动
but today scientists are mostly convinced that
但是现在科学家们大多相信
this is just involuntary reflex actions that linger on in the aftermath,
这只是斩首后存留的无意识反射动作
but still doubt and conflicting reports linger about this whole issue.
但对于整个问题 仍然存在有疑问和相矛盾的报道
One of the most compelling accounts of consciousness being said to still exist
其中一个最令人信服的说法是在1905年
for a significant amount of time after being guillotined was in 1905.
它声称在被斩首后 很长一段时间里意识仍旧存在
Henri Languille was executed by the device in Orleans of France.
亨利·兰圭尔在法国奥尔良被断头台处决
Dr. Gabriel Beaurieux observed that decapitated head was still twitching.
加百利·博里厄医生观察到掉下断头台的头颅仍在动
And when he called out the man’s name,
并且当他叫出那个男人的名字时
his eyes looked upwards and stared directly the doctor.
他的眼睛向上直直地盯着博里厄医生
It was claimed that this lasted for between 25 to 30 seconds.
据说这持续了25到30秒
Though later in 1939 the Journal of the American Medical Association thought
尽管之后在1939年 《美国医学会杂志》认为
Beaurieux was exaggerating his account of what happened,
博里厄夸大了真实情况
as other witnesses that have been presented at the execution said
据在场其他证人所言
life only seemed to last for a maximum of 10 seconds.
他好像最多持续了10秒
And that the man’s reactions were less pronounced.
并且那个男人的反应并不明显
Today scientists agree that once the victim is guillotined,
如今科学家们认可一旦受刑者被斩首
the separated head and the body dies from a combination of things –
分离的头颅和身体就会死于
shock, blood loss, loss of blood pressure and anoxia,
惊吓 失血过多 血压降低和缺氧的综合情况
which is the total completion of the level of oxygen within the body.
而这些条件决定了人体供氧水平
The separated body as such lives for about another 60 seconds
分离的身体会像这样再活60秒
until the heart finally stops beating.
直到心脏最后停跳
As for the decapitated head,
至于被斩下的头颅
scientists say that it can technically have enough oxygen stored
科学家们认为 从技术上讲 它储存了
for metabolism to continue for about 7 seconds.
足以继续维持7秒新陈代谢的氧气
The parts of the body may live on for a very short time after being guillotined.
身体的部分在斩首后可能会存活很短的一段时间
The catastrophic effect of being decapitated means that
被斩首的灾难性后果是
any consciousness would be extinguished almost instantly.
任何意识几乎立刻消失
So for about 2 to 3 seconds the brain may still be functioning
大脑可能还可以存活2到3秒
but any intelligence would be in a fixed unresponsive comatose state,
但任何意识都会处于稳定的无反应昏迷状态
unaware of anything.
对一切毫无所知
But there is still not been conclusively proven evidence one way or another
但无论怎样都没有确凿证据
if consciousness really remain significantly after the decapitation.
能表明斩首后意识还是否存在
Maybe in time we’ll find out what really happens in those short moments
也许我们终有一天会弄清楚
before life is extinguished.
在生命结束前的短暂时间里究竟发生了什么

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视频概述

关于断头台处刑后人能活多久,科学家们有不同的想法并开展了研究。

听录译者

ABC

翻译译者

一枝春雪

审核员

审核员HC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jgGp7Zvz5QA

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