When a piece of our modern technology breaks down,
we’re not necessarily in a hurry to buy a replacement.
As it’s often enough to just replace the worn-out part that is causing the problems,
greatly extending the life of say a coffee maker,
a microwave oven or even a car.
But, what if in the same way
we could prolong the life of a person,
replacing sick worn-out organs with new ones?
After all, according to whatever healthy way of life we didn’t lead,
there’s always some traitor inside of us,
who first refuses to function properly,
thereby undermining the activity of the whole organism.
Patients who need a transplant
are forced to wait for years in line to get the desired organ,
when using official donor programs.
But what if you resort to the services of clandestine organ traders?
How much should you spend
to achieve the maximum possible upgrade for your body?
A new shoulder and stomach
can be acquired by laying out a measly 500 bucks.
A skull with teeth or a gallbladder
cost in the range of $1,200.
If you have an extra 1,500 bucks,
you can pick out a nice pair of eyeballs,
or a coronary artery whichever you prefer.
The costs of covering your body with new skin
can be calculated by multiplying your body surface area
in square inches by 10 dollars.
The most expensive at the moment are those organs
without which continued life is impossible.
Our heart and liver can be bought from between $119,000 and $157,000.
And the price of a kidney may exceed the cost of an Aston Martin DBS.
In layman’s terms, that means over $250,000.
Alas, I must dash your dreams
of trading in one of your superfluous kidneys for a luxury car.
The indicated prices are for buyers.
Donors of kidneys on average receive just about $10,000 for their organ.
One must agree,
such is very little compensation for a possible reduction in lifespan.
So, buying yourself new organs,
you need to fork out a minimum of say a half a million bucks.
And the black market by its very nature
doesn’t guarantee the highest quality of goods.
So, you could easily end up back where you started.
But if you turn to official legal medicine,
then the numbers will be even more extreme.
A single heart can cost more than a million dollars!
And that’s just the organ.
If we add to the cost of the organs,
the payment required for transplant services.
Then the list of people who can afford such procedures
will very quickly begin to resemble the list of Forbes richest.
One of the former participants on that list, David Rockefeller
had seven heart transplants and two kidney transplants
during the last 40 years of his life,
which helped him live to a quite lengthy 101 years.
It was finally his eighth heart ceasing to function
which caused the death of this long-lived billionaire.
But is an 8th heart the limit?
On average transplanted kidneys and livers
live or survive for about 20 years.
The longest-lived continued life for a recipient
after a heart transplant is thirty years.
所以 假设你已经70岁 器官依旧健康
So, let’s suppose you’ve managed to keep your organs healthy up to the age of 70.
But now you need them replaced.
If you don’t take into account all the other organs and processes of aging
then in order to live to a thousand,
you would need 31 heart transplants
and 47 liver and kidney transplants.
What do you think?
Is it realistic to be able to earn so much money?
Please leave your thoughts in the comments.
I’m really interested in hearing what you have to say.
I think that all rich people have one thing in common.
All of them read a lot.
I want my videos to be useful to you,
not only as entertainment.
They should also make you think, ask questions,
increase your interest in science
and in exploring this wonderful world we live in.
My dear viewers, read.
Even reading just one book a month
will help you to change your future dramatically.
At first your brain may well resist,
coming up with various excuses, like:
I don’t have free time to sit with a book.
I have work to do.
Don’t fall for that baloney in our time, in this digital age.
There’s no reason to read books anymore.
多亏各种服务 比如今天的赞助商 audible
Thanks to services, such as audible, today’s sponsor.
It’s possible to acquire new knowledge
while driving, during your morning run,
while doing your household chores, or even when walking the dog.
Just grab your earphones, turn on audible,
choose your book and listen.
This is an awesome app.
Use my link or text RIDDDLE to 500 – 500
to get a free book and a 30-day free trial.
Audible gives you access to an unmatched selection of audiobooks.
原创音频节目 新闻 科学 喜剧
Original audio shows, news, science, comedy
so much to increase your knowledge.
And this membership isn’t some kind of a rental service
the books you select are yours to keep forever.
Right now, I’m listening to Countdown by Alan Weisman.
It’s about how the earth can heal and even refill empty niches.
if relieved of some of humanity’s constant pressures.
亲爱的观众 我很好奇 你们听的是什么呢？
My dear viewers, I’m curious what are you listening to?
Go to audible.com/RIDDDLE today.
Start your trial and let me know what book you choose.
Just try to read more or listen more,
and I swear books are gonna change your life
and help you to achieve all of your goals.
But if finances aren’t a problem,
can one’s body survive all these trials and tribulations?
Or maybe transplants can kill us?
New organs in our body
are perceived by the immune system as alien.
So we’ll make every attempt to attack the alien invader
which in the end can lead to death.
To keep this from happening,
patients who’ve received a new organ
take special medications that suppress the immune system.
Unfortunately, this makes them vulnerable
to all different sorts of infections that swarm our planet.
And kidneys simply cannot withstand this treatment for long.
That’s why Rockfeller needed to replace his kidneys twice.
If the well-known billionaire
had had every new heart survived to the maximum possible,
he might well have lived until the ripe old age of 272.
True. He wouldn’t have needed just two kidneys to survive this long.
He would have needed eleven,
provided that they also worked at their fixed maximum.
But what about other vital organs?
The brain, according to scientists, is able to live for up to 200 years.
That is if we manage to keep the other organs in good running order,
possibility of an operation for a head transplant
still remains only the object of scientific disputes and far-fetched assumptions.
But what if the operation were successful?
Would this result in a boom, among the powerful of this world
who want to prolong their lives, in acquiring new bodies?
Is it possible then that the world would be divided into two parts,
one of which would simply be the raw material for extending the life
of the second richer and stronger half of humanity.
After all, for organ transplantation,
a large number of people need an equal number of donors.
Of course, you can use donors who become recently deceased.
But it’s not every day that a person dies
whose organs are ideally suited specifically to us.
It’s much easier to find such organs among the far more numerous living human beings.
This problem could be solved
by some of our smaller brethren,
In addition to being succulent and tasty bacon,
can give their organs for the extension of human lives.
A dying baboon who received a transplanted pig’s heart
was able to live happily for three additional years.
Chinese scientists who switch to using these genetically modified experimental pigs,
due to a ban on transplant research involving prisoners
suggest that in the near future,
it will be possible to transplant pig organs into humans.
One might assume that for such purposes apes would be genetically closer
and their organs more adaptable to humans.
But it turns out that pigs
in addition to having excellent compatibility with humans
differ in their cost of breeding.
In other words, they’re cheap
and they lack the ability to evoke sympathy from animal rights activists.
Although it should be noted
that pig organs still suffer from the problem of rejection by the human immune system.
But what if we look at the problem deeper
at the level of cells and not organs?
Recipients who received stem cells in addition to donor organs,
have managed to survive for a time
without the usual panoply of drugs that suppress the immune system.
In such patients, thanks to the stem cells of the donor,
a chimeric immune system is formed.
In biology, the chimera is not a mythical monster,
but an organism that consists of hereditarily different cells.
Amazingly, the donor immunity
begins to work in tandem with that of the recipient organism,
which consequently does not reject the organ.
It’s like transplanting an entire immune system,
which, of course, gives us all hope that we can live longer
without lifelong drug intake and a compromised immune system.
But this still does not solve the problem regarding the dearth of donors.
Pig organs cannot yet be transplanted
and human donors remain scarce.
And what if you could get a new organ without a donor?
What if it could be created or grown?
Since 2010 a bioengineer deliciously named Gabor Forgacs
using stem cells and a 3D bioprinter
was able to print a human blood vessel,
a fragment of a liver, and a heart valve.
Following in his footsteps, one Professor Gordon Wallace
has created nerve tissue.
Such bioprinting is not yet developed enough
to create full-fledged organs.
But it is already actively used
for making artificial meat and skin
which cannot but please eco-advocates
as they can now eat steak and wear leather shoes
being sure that no animals suffered in their production.
And if we go even further,
can our bodies even have a different form?
Harvard’s Donald Ingber has developed devices that
are populated with cells of a variety of different organs.
Such chips do not look like real organs obviously,
but they perform the same functions.
肾 肝 肺 甚至肠的晶片
Kidneys, liver, lungs and even intestines on chips
have already been created.
It’s possible that in the near future,
we may well transform over time into bio robots
with silicon chips in place of our organs.
But what if all these attempts to prolong life
by all these different proposed methods
are essentially meaningless?
What if everything is already predetermined?
In my episode on maximum life expectancy, I mentioned that
under ideal conditions, a person can live up to 300 years.
Many researchers believe that
our aging and life expectancy
are programmed at the genetic level.
But if this is so,
does that mean it might be possible to modify the DNA,
thereby creating genetic mutants that can live longer?
Researcher Michael Rose, using specialized breeding techniques
managed to fool the aging gene and
make fruit flies survive to 120 days
instead of their usual 60.
By human standards, this equals an increase in life of about 200 years.
So, are genes to blame for everything?
Perhaps. But the main reason that we age
is, believe it or not, our breathing.
This process oxidizes our cells.
Thereby causing them to eventually wither and die.
Does this mean we need to find an alternative to oxygen?
Must we learn how to live without it
in order to increase our span of years?
Even if this is so,
I don’t recommend chasing after this ephemeral dream just yet,
rather one should focus on one’s quality of life and that of their loved ones.
Psychologist Viktor Frankl who survived a Nazi concentration camp
claimed that only those people who felt they had something to live for survived.
因此 如果你的生活过得充实 而且富有意义
Therefore, if your life is fully realized and filled with meaning,
your body will find the strength necessary
to fight off all challenges
and will live as long as it takes
to achieve your ultimate goals.