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更换器官,能让人类多活几年? – 译学馆
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更换器官,能让人类多活几年?

How Long Can Human Life Be Prolonged By Replacing Organs With New Ones

当一台电子产品坏掉的时候
When a piece of our modern technology breaks down,
我们并不需要急着去买一台新的
we’re not necessarily in a hurry to buy a replacement.
把问题零件换掉 往往就够了
As it’s often enough to just replace the worn-out part that is causing the problems,
这样能大大地延长咖啡机的寿命
greatly extending the life of say a coffee maker,
微波炉 甚至车子也一样
a microwave oven or even a car.
但是 能不能用同样方法
But, what if in the same way
把老旧器官换成新器官
we could prolong the life of a person,
来延长一个人的生命呢
replacing sick worn-out organs with new ones?
毕竟 就算我们的生活过得再健康
After all, according to whatever healthy way of life we didn’t lead,
我们体内总会有个叛徒
there’s always some traitor inside of us,
它先是会失去功能
who first refuses to function properly,
从而破坏了整个生命体的活动
thereby undermining the activity of the whole organism.
需要做移植手术的病人
Patients who need a transplant
就算通过正式器官捐献计划
are forced to wait for years in line to get the desired organ,
也得排队等待数年才等到所要的器官
when using official donor programs.
那么 可不可以去找非法器官交易者呢?
But what if you resort to the services of clandestine organ traders?
你应该花多少钱
How much should you spend
为身体进行最可能全面的更新呢?
to achieve the maximum possible upgrade for your body?
一个新肩膀和胃
A new shoulder and stomach
只需要500美元就可购得
can be acquired by laying out a measly 500 bucks.
一颗带有牙齿的头骨或是一颗胆囊
A skull with teeth or a gallbladder
要花费1200美元左右
cost in the range of $1,200.
如果你再加1500美元
If you have an extra 1,500 bucks,
你就能挑选到一对好眼睛
you can pick out a nice pair of eyeballs,
或是一根冠状动脉 随便你选
or a coronary artery whichever you prefer.
植皮换肤的费用
The costs of covering your body with new skin
是用你身体的面积计算的
can be calculated by multiplying your body surface area
每平方英寸需要10美元
in square inches by 10 dollars.
目前最昂贵的器官
The most expensive at the moment are those organs
就是那些维持生命的器官
without which continued life is impossible.
人的心脏或者肝需要花费11.9-15.7万美元
Our heart and liver can be bought from between $119,000 and $157,000.
一颗肾脏的价格或许比一辆艾斯顿马丁DBS还贵
And the price of a kidney may exceed the cost of an Aston Martin DBS.
简单来说就是超过了25万美元
In layman’s terms, that means over $250,000.
可是你别做梦了
Alas, I must dash your dreams
休想卖掉多余的肾来买豪车
of trading in one of your superfluous kidneys for a luxury car.
这里说的价格是对购买者而言
The indicated prices are for buyers.
捐一颗肾 平均只能获得1万美元左右
Donors of kidneys on average receive just about $10,000 for their organ.
你必须同意的是
One must agree,
通过缩短寿命换来这样的报酬 实在太少了
such is very little compensation for a possible reduction in lifespan.
因此 如果要买新器官的话
So, buying yourself new organs,
你至少需要花上50万美元
you need to fork out a minimum of say a half a million bucks.
而且在黑市中
And the black market by its very nature
本来就不能保证得到最佳品质的商品
doesn’t guarantee the highest quality of goods.
所以你很有可能回到原点
So, you could easily end up back where you started.
但是如果去找合法医疗机构的话
But if you turn to official legal medicine,
价格就更贵了
then the numbers will be even more extreme.
一颗心脏就要花费超过100万美元
A single heart can cost more than a million dollars!
而且那还只是器官的价格
And that’s just the organ.
如果我们将购买器官的费用
If we add to the cost of the organs,
和移植手术费用加起来
the payment required for transplant services.
那么能够负担得起这类手术的人
Then the list of people who can afford such procedures
很快就只剩下福布斯富豪榜上的人了
will very quickly begin to resemble the list of Forbes richest.
曾经是其中一员的大卫·洛克菲勒
One of the former participants on that list, David Rockefeller
在他生命的最后40年内
had seven heart transplants and two kidney transplants
换了七次心脏 两次肾脏
during the last 40 years of his life,
让他活到了101岁的长寿
which helped him live to a quite lengthy 101 years.
他的第8颗心脏停止跳动的时候
It was finally his eighth heart ceasing to function
这位长寿的亿万富翁才逝世的
which caused the death of this long-lived billionaire.
但是8次心脏手术 究竟是不是极限?
But is an 8th heart the limit?
被移植的肾脏和肝脏
On average transplanted kidneys and livers
平均可以用上大约20年
live or survive for about 20 years.
存活最久的心脏移植病人
The longest-lived continued life for a recipient
手术后存活了30年
after a heart transplant is thirty years.
所以 假设你已经70岁 器官依旧健康
So, let’s suppose you’ve managed to keep your organs healthy up to the age of 70.
但是你现在需要换掉这些器官
But now you need them replaced.
先不考虑其他器官和老化过程
If you don’t take into account all the other organs and processes of aging
如果要活到1千岁
then in order to live to a thousand,
你就需要换31次心脏
you would need 31 heart transplants
以及47次肝脏和肾脏
and 47 liver and kidney transplants.
你的看法是什么?
What do you think?
赚到这么多的钱是否实际呢?
Is it realistic to be able to earn so much money?
请在评论区留下你的想法
Please leave your thoughts in the comments.
我真的很想知道你们是怎么想的
I’m really interested in hearing what you have to say.
我认为所有富有的人都有一个共通点
I think that all rich people have one thing in common.
就是他们的阅读量都很大
All of them read a lot.
我希望我的视频对你有帮助
I want my videos to be useful to you,
而不仅仅给你带来娱乐
not only as entertainment.
视频也应该让你思考 发问
They should also make you think, ask questions,
让你对科学更感兴趣
increase your interest in science
让你更想探索我们这个美好的世界
and in exploring this wonderful world we live in.
亲爱的观众 请多多阅读
My dear viewers, read.
即使你一个月只看一本书
Even reading just one book a month
也能大大地改变你的未来
will help you to change your future dramatically.
首先你的大脑会抗拒
At first your brain may well resist,
想出许多借口
coming up with various excuses, like:
比如 我没空坐下来看书
I don’t have free time to sit with a book.
我有工作要做
I have work to do.
在这个电子时代 千万别上当了
Don’t fall for that baloney in our time, in this digital age.
我们没有任何理由读书了
There’s no reason to read books anymore.
多亏各种服务 比如今天的赞助商 audible
Thanks to services, such as audible, today’s sponsor.
不用读书也可以获取新知识
It’s possible to acquire new knowledge
不管是在驾车 晨跑
while driving, during your morning run,
做家务 甚至遛狗的时候
while doing your household chores, or even when walking the dog.
只需拿起耳机 打开audible
Just grab your earphones, turn on audible,
选择书籍就可以收听了
choose your book and listen.
这是一个很棒的应用程序
This is an awesome app.
使用我这个链接 或是发送“RIDDDLE”到500-500
Use my link or text RIDDDLE to 500 – 500
可免费获得一本书和30天的免费试阅
to get a free book and a 30-day free trial.
Audible 的有声书籍种类无可匹比
Audible gives you access to an unmatched selection of audiobooks.
原创音频节目 新闻 科学 喜剧
Original audio shows, news, science, comedy
那么多本有声书 让你增广见闻
so much to increase your knowledge.
会员得到的不是租书服务
And this membership isn’t some kind of a rental service
你所选择的书永远都属于你
the books you select are yours to keep forever.
我现在听的是艾伦·韦斯曼的《倒计时》
Right now, I’m listening to Countdown by Alan Weisman.
书中说 地球可以恢复甚至填补空生态位
It’s about how the earth can heal and even refill empty niches.
只要人类减少对地球施加的持续压力
if relieved of some of humanity’s constant pressures.
亲爱的观众 我很好奇 你们听的是什么呢?
My dear viewers, I’m curious what are you listening to?
今天就到“audible.com/RIDDDLE”
Go to audible.com/RIDDDLE today.
启动你的试用期 告诉我你选择了什么书籍
Start your trial and let me know what book you choose.
只要多多阅读 多多听书
Just try to read more or listen more,
我保证 书籍会改变你的生活
and I swear books are gonna change your life
并且帮助你达到所有目标
and help you to achieve all of your goals.
但是 假如钱不是问题的话
But if finances aren’t a problem,
人体究竟承担得起这些考验吗?
can one’s body survive all these trials and tribulations?
又或者 进行移植会要我们的命?
Or maybe transplants can kill us?
人体内的新器官
New organs in our body
会被免疫系统视为外来细胞
are perceived by the immune system as alien.
于是人体就会想尽办法攻击外来入侵者
So we’ll make every attempt to attack the alien invader
结果可能导致死亡
which in the end can lead to death.
为了避免发生这类情况
To keep this from happening,
接受移植器官的病人
patients who’ve received a new organ
必须服用特别药物来抑制免疫系统
take special medications that suppress the immune system.
可是这样一来 人体就变得虚弱
Unfortunately, this makes them vulnerable
容易被肆虐地球的各类病菌感染
to all different sorts of infections that swarm our planet.
肾脏也无法长时间承受这样的治疗方法
And kidneys simply cannot withstand this treatment for long.
所以洛克菲勒才会需要换两次肾脏
That’s why Rockfeller needed to replace his kidneys twice.
这位著名的亿万富翁
If the well-known billionaire
要是每一颗新心脏都用到了最长寿命的话
had had every new heart survived to the maximum possible,
他的寿命就很有可能长达272岁
he might well have lived until the ripe old age of 272.
要活到这么老 他就不只需要两颗肾脏了
True. He wouldn’t have needed just two kidneys to survive this long.
他需要的是11颗肾脏
He would have needed eleven,
而且每颗肾脏都要用到寿命的极限
provided that they also worked at their fixed maximum.
那么其他重要器官呢?
But what about other vital organs?
科学家说 大脑的寿命长达200年
The brain, according to scientists, is able to live for up to 200 years.
但是就算其他器官都能维持正常运作
That is if we manage to keep the other organs in good running order,
头部移植手术的可能性
possibility of an operation for a head transplant
也依旧是科学界的争议 所以只能是异想天开
still remains only the object of scientific disputes and far-fetched assumptions.
但是 要是手术成功呢?
But what if the operation were successful?
世界上有势力的人会不会一窝蜂
Would this result in a boom, among the powerful of this world
通过换新身体来延长生命呢?
who want to prolong their lives, in acquiring new bodies?
人类会不会分成两个部分
Is it possible then that the world would be divided into two parts,
其中一部分只是延长生命的原料
one of which would simply be the raw material for extending the life
供另一部分更富有 更有势力的人使用呢?
of the second richer and stronger half of humanity.
毕竟 如果要进行器官移植
After all, for organ transplantation,
有多少人接受移植 就要有同数目的捐赠者
a large number of people need an equal number of donors.
当然 近期内死亡的人可以提供器官
Of course, you can use donors who become recently deceased.
但是 刚死亡的人的器官
But it’s not every day that a person dies
不一定适合我们
whose organs are ideally suited specifically to us.
在众多活人身上找这类器官 比较容易得多
It’s much easier to find such organs among the far more numerous living human beings.
要想解决这个问题
This problem could be solved
可以找一些体型较小的动物
by some of our smaller brethren,
具体地说就是猪
specifically pigs.
猪不但可以提供美味的培根
In addition to being succulent and tasty bacon,
还可以捐出器官 延长人类的生命
can give their organs for the extension of human lives.
一只临死的狒狒接受了猪心移植手术后
A dying baboon who received a transplanted pig’s heart
快快乐乐地多活了三年
was able to live happily for three additional years.
有些中国科学家改用了基因改造实验猪
Chinese scientists who switch to using these genetically modified experimental pigs,
原因是涉及囚犯的器官移植研究已被禁止
due to a ban on transplant research involving prisoners
他们指出 在不久的将来
suggest that in the near future,
人类将能接受猪只器官移植
it will be possible to transplant pig organs into humans.
理论上 猿的基因更接近人类
One might assume that for such purposes apes would be genetically closer
所以它们的器官理应更适合人类
and their organs more adaptable to humans.
但事实上
But it turns out that pigs
猪的基因与人类的兼容性很高
in addition to having excellent compatibility with humans
而且猪的繁殖成本有所差别
differ in their cost of breeding.
换句话说 猪很便宜
In other words, they’re cheap
而且无法激起动物权利活跃分子的同情
and they lack the ability to evoke sympathy from animal rights activists.
但是值得注意的是
Although it should be noted
猪器官也有可能被人类免疫系统排斥
that pig organs still suffer from the problem of rejection by the human immune system.
但是如果更深一层地看待问题的话
But what if we look at the problem deeper
从细胞层面而非器官层面看
at the level of cells and not organs?
同时接受器官和干细胞移植的病人
Recipients who received stem cells in addition to donor organs,
能够存活一段时间
have managed to survive for a time
无需服用一大堆抑制免疫系统的药物
without the usual panoply of drugs that suppress the immune system.
这类病人由于获得了捐赠者的干细胞
In such patients, thanks to the stem cells of the donor,
形成了嵌合体免疫系统
a chimeric immune system is formed.
在生物学上 嵌合体不是传说中的怪物
In biology, the chimera is not a mythical monster,
而是一种由不同遗传的细胞组成的生物
but an organism that consists of hereditarily different cells.
令人惊讶的是 捐赠者的免疫力
Amazingly, the donor immunity
开始与受赠者的免疫系统同步运作
begins to work in tandem with that of the recipient organism,
导致器官不被受赠者身体排斥
which consequently does not reject the organ.
这就像是在移植整个免疫系统
It’s like transplanting an entire immune system,
当然 这让我们有希望活得更久
which, of course, gives us all hope that we can live longer
不必终生服药 免疫系统无需受到抑制
without lifelong drug intake and a compromised immune system.
但是 这还是解决不了捐赠者不足的问题
But this still does not solve the problem regarding the dearth of donors.
目前 猪器官还不能移植
Pig organs cannot yet be transplanted
人类捐赠者则依旧缺乏
and human donors remain scarce.
可不可以不找捐赠者就获得新器官呢?
And what if you could get a new organ without a donor?
要是器官可以生产或者培养呢?
What if it could be created or grown?
2010年 一位名叫加伯·佛格区的生物工程师
Since 2010 a bioengineer deliciously named Gabor Forgacs
利用干细胞和3D生物打印机
using stem cells and a 3D bioprinter
成功打印出了一条人类血管
was able to print a human blood vessel,
一块人肝 还有一个心瓣
a fragment of a liver, and a heart valve.
在他之后 一位名叫戈登·华莱士的教授
Following in his footsteps, one Professor Gordon Wallace
也造出了神经组织
has created nerve tissue.
生物打印技术目前不够发达
Such bioprinting is not yet developed enough
仍不能打印出整个器官
to create full-fledged organs.
但是已经有人积极使用该技术
But it is already actively used
制作假肉和假皮肤
for making artificial meat and skin
这让生态倡导者很高兴
which cannot but please eco-advocates
因为他们现在可以吃牛排 穿皮鞋
as they can now eat steak and wear leather shoes
不必担心制作过程中有动物受到伤害
being sure that no animals suffered in their production.
如果再进一步想象的话
And if we go even further,
人体可不可以换个形状呢?
can our bodies even have a different form?
哈佛大学的唐纳德·因格贝尔发明了一些设备
Harvard’s Donald Ingber has developed devices that
里头装有不同器官的细胞
are populated with cells of a variety of different organs.
当然 这种晶片跟真正器官长得不一样
Such chips do not look like real organs obviously,
但是它们的功能一样
but they perform the same functions.
肾 肝 肺 甚至肠的晶片
Kidneys, liver, lungs and even intestines on chips
已经被发明出来了
have already been created.
在不久的将来
It’s possible that in the near future,
我们有可能渐渐地变成生物机器人
we may well transform over time into bio robots
而身上的器官也可能被硅晶片取代
with silicon chips in place of our organs.
但是 如果我们为了延长生命
But what if all these attempts to prolong life
想出各种不同的做法
by all these different proposed methods
到头来都毫无意义 怎么办?
are essentially meaningless?
如果一切都早已注定 怎么办?
What if everything is already predetermined?
我在有关最长寿命的那一集中提到
In my episode on maximum life expectancy, I mentioned that
在理想情况下 一个人可以活到300岁
under ideal conditions, a person can live up to 300 years.
许多研究人员相信
Many researchers believe that
我们的老化和寿命
our aging and life expectancy
早已在基因层面上决定了
are programmed at the genetic level.
但如果是这样的话
But if this is so,
我们是不是可以修改DNA
does that mean it might be possible to modify the DNA,
来创造更长寿的基因变种人?
thereby creating genetic mutants that can live longer?
研究人员迈克尔·罗斯利用特别的繁殖技术
Researcher Michael Rose, using specialized breeding techniques
成功欺骗了老化基因
managed to fool the aging gene and
让果蝇存活120天
make fruit flies survive to 120 days
而不是一般果蝇的60天
instead of their usual 60.
这相等于把人的寿命延长200年左右
By human standards, this equals an increase in life of about 200 years.
那么 这一切都是基因惹的祸吗?
So, are genes to blame for everything?
或许是 但是人类老化的主要原因
Perhaps. But the main reason that we age
不管你相信与否 是我们的呼吸
is, believe it or not, our breathing.
这个过程会氧化我们的细胞
This process oxidizes our cells.
因此最终造成细胞的衰亡
Thereby causing them to eventually wither and die.
难道我们需要去寻找氧气的替代品吗?
Does this mean we need to find an alternative to oxygen?
我们是不是要学会不依赖氧气
Must we learn how to live without it
才能延长寿命呢?
in order to increase our span of years?
就算如此
Even if this is so,
我暂时不建议追求这个昙花一现的梦想
I don’t recommend chasing after this ephemeral dream just yet,
我们应该关注自己和亲人的生活品质
rather one should focus on one’s quality of life and that of their loved ones.
心理学家维克多·弗兰克在纳粹集中营中侥幸存活
Psychologist Viktor Frankl who survived a Nazi concentration camp
他称说 只有生活有目的的人才得以存活
claimed that only those people who felt they had something to live for survived.
因此 如果你的生活过得充实 而且富有意义
Therefore, if your life is fully realized and filled with meaning,
你的身体会找到所需的力量
your body will find the strength necessary
来克服所有挑战
to fight off all challenges
寿命也会随着需要而延长
and will live as long as it takes
直到完成你最终的目标
to achieve your ultimate goals.

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译制信息
视频概述

更换器官,能让人类多活几年?

听录译者

Felicity

翻译译者

搬那度

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ph4pvoWsxdc

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