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生命是如何从深海里开始的

How Life Begins in the Deep Ocean

来自大海的故事
"Stories from the Sea"
海胆奥德赛:在浮游生物中性感的存在
"Urchin Odyssey: Sex Among Plankton"
我肯定让你看起来特别奇怪,
I must look rather strange to you,
身上覆盖满了刺
all covered in spines,
甚至没有脸。
without even a face.
在我的生活但我采取多种形式。
But I’ve taken many forms during my life.
我一开始和你一样,
I started out just like you,
是一个小小的卵在一个充满水的世界。
a tiny egg in a watery world.
我的父母素未谋面。
My parents never knew each other.
在一个将要开始风暴的月光皎洁的夜晚,
One moonlit night before a storm,
数以千计的海胆,河蚌和珊瑚
thousands of urchins, clams and corals
向海中释放出万亿的精子和卵子
released trillions of sperm and eggs into the open sea.
我父亲的精子遇到了我母亲的卵子,
My father’s sperm somehow met my mother’s egg,
然后它们结合了。
and they fused.
受精。
Fertilization.
一结合后我就变成了一个像尘埃上面一个小点那么大的胚胎。
Instantly, I became an embryo the size of a speck of dust.
在几个小时的漂流后
After a few hours of drifting,
我分裂成为两个,然后分成四个,
I cleaved in two, then four,
然后分成八个细胞。然后更多
then eight cells. Then so many I lost count.
在少于一天的时间内完成
In less than a day,
我发育出肠子和骨架。
I developed a gut and a skeleton.
我变成了一个火箭,
I became a rocket ship,
一个长腕幼虫的幼体。
a pluteus larva.
我在蜉蝣生物的世界里浮动着,
I floated through the world of plankton,
寻找小型的藻类来吃
searching for tiny algae to eat.
几周以后,
For weeks,
我周围环绕着各种生物体,
I was surrounded by all kinds of organisms,
各种类型的幼体。
larvae of all sorts.
很多和它们成年的样子非常不同
Most are so different from their adult form
生物学家也很难辨认这段时期的幼体是什么
that biologists have a tough time figuring out who they are.
尝试去把这些幼小动物和它们的父母匹配。
Try matching these youngsters to their parents.
这是原膜幼体的幼虫。
This veliger larva
然后变成一个蜗牛。
will turn into a snail.
这个海蟹幼虫变成海蟹。
This zoea, into a crab.
同时这个浮浪幼体成为刺细胞水母。
And this planula into a cnidaria jelly.
有一些我的同伴们更容易长大成人。
Some of my young companions are easier to picture as grown-ups.
这些水母宝宝们是蝶妆幼体
These baby jellies, known as ephyrae
已经像它们死去的父母了。
already resemble their beautiful but deadly parents.
在浮游生物中,
Here in the plankton,
有不止一种方式把你的基因遗传给下一代。
there’s more than one way to get your genes into the next generation.
大部分胶状的水母们
Most medusa jellies
建立了我们称之为息肉的特殊的结构
make special structures called polyps
这个简单的不需要性行为的萌芽产生宝宝。
that simply bud off babies with no need for sex.
樽海鞘用相似的方式。
Salps are similar.
当食物充足的时候,它们只需要克隆它们自己,成为长链
When food is abundant, they just clone themselves into long chains.
当蜉蝣生物进行性行为时更是充满惊奇。
A plankton is full of surprises when it comes to sex.
雌雄同体进行集会。
Meet the hermaphrodites.
这些栉水母和箭虫
These comb jellies and arrow worms
生产、储藏和释放精子和卵子。
produce, store and release both sperm and eggs.
它们可以自我受精
They can fertilize themselves
或者与其它个体受精
or another.
当你漂浮在大海上的时候,
When you’re floating in a vast sea,
你将遇到谁这是你很难控制的,
with little control over who you may meet,
可以在两边的区域扮演角色
it can pay to play both sides of the field.
对于成年的生物体,但是
The majority of species here, however,
从不交配,或者任何程度的持续结合。
never mate, nor form any sort of lasting bonds.
这是我父母的策略。
That was my parents’ strategy.
有非常多的长腕幼虫的幼体,
There were so many of us pluteus larvae,
我只是隐藏在人群中,与此同时大部分我的同族被毁灭了。
I just hid in the crowd while most of my kin were devoured.
不是每个父母都有能力给幸存的后代生存的机会。
Not all parents leave the survival of their offspring to chance.
有些更小的幼体
Some have far fewer young,
需要更加悉心的照料
and take much better care of them,
孵化它们宝贵的货物需要很多天甚至上月
brooding their precious cargo for days, even months.
这个速度很快的桡足动物
This speedy copepod
负担这她这袋漂亮的卵数十天
totes her beautifully packaged eggs for days.
这个巧戎科甲壳纲动物携带她的宝宝们在她的胸腔内
This phronima crustacean carries her babies on her chest,
然后小心翼翼的将它们放置在凝胶状的桶内
then carefully places them in a gelatinous barrel.
但是黑眼鱿鱼荣登桂冠。
But the black-eyed squid takes the prize.
她把宝宝们放进长臂的摇篮中长达九个月
She cradles her eggs in long arms for nine months,
这个人类怀孕一个婴孩的时间一样长
the same time it takes to gestate a human infant.
最终所有的幼小动物需要自己在这个世界中漂浮。
Eventually all youngsters have to make it on their own in this drifting world.
有一些作为蜉蝣生物度过了一生,
Some will spend their whole lives in the plankton,
但是另一些,像我一样继续前进。
but others, like me, move on.
几周以后我怀孕了
A few weeks after I was conceived,
我决定安定下来
I decided to settle down
变形成为大家认识的海胆。
and metamorphosed into a recognizable urchin.
或许你现在知道一些我的故事了。
So now you know a bit of my story.
我或许是个缓慢移动的刺球,
I may just be a slow-moving ball of spines,
但是不要让我成年安静的外表愚弄你。
but don’t let my calm adult exterior fool you.
我曾经是火箭,我曾经是个野孩子。
I was a rocket ship.I was a wild child.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_R7ouD8-Eo

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