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在1502年,达芬奇如何绘制卫星地图? – 译学馆
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在1502年,达芬奇如何绘制卫星地图?

How Leonardo da Vinci made a "satellite" map in 1502

这张2019年的地图
This map from 2019 was compiled
是用卫星和航拍图像绘制的
using satellite and aerial imagery.
而大概在1502年 莱昂纳多·达芬奇绘制了这幅地图
Leonardo da Vinci made this one around 1502
而当时他却是在陆地上
while stuck on the ground
他是怎么做到的?
How?
当恶名昭著的意大利政客恺撒·博尔吉亚
When infamous Italian politician Cesare Borgia
把这幅肖像的作者
brought Leonardo da Vinci
莱昂纳多·达芬奇带到带到伊莫拉城时
the guy who drew this portrait — to the city of Imola,
是将其作为军事工程师的
it was as a military engineer.
当时达芬奇已经建立了良好的军事声誉
He’d already established a good military reputation
并且画了几幅著名的作品
and painted several famous works.
当莱昂纳多被安置在博尔吉亚新获得的城堡时
When Leonardo was installed at Borgia’s newly acquired fort,
他的职责之一就是帮助博尔吉亚勘查领地
one of his duties was to help Borgia learn the territory.
在那个时代 一幅像这样的地图才是标准
At the time, a map like this was the standard
一般是鸟瞰图并在山上观测绘制的
with the birdseye and hillside view
神话人物经常在图中出现
Mythical creatures often poped up,
不符合军事行动的要求
not great for military operations.
远景图也只能显示出部分建筑物
The perspective also only showed some buildings,
而把另一部分建筑挡住了
blocking the view of other ones.
这些地图可以很美
These maps could be beautiful.
但是缺乏适当的形状和比例
But they lacked proper shape and scale
并且为了突出地标建筑的美感而牺牲了清晰度
and highlighted landmarks’ beauty at the expense of clarity.
莱昂纳多需要将伊莫拉呈现为一张“平面地图”
Leonardo needed to show Imola as an “ichnographic” map
这个概念由一名叫维特鲁威的罗马工程师所描述
— an idea that Vitruvius — a Roman engineer
而达芬奇受此启发
and the guy who inspired this — had described.
实际上 平面地图所呈现的是
In practice, it’s a map where everything looks like
你在所有物体正上方往下看的景象
you’re directly above whatever you show.
它让你看的更加清晰
It gives you a clearer picture.
看这个城堡
Look at the fort.
在谷歌地图上 阴影效果会有一点影响
In Google Maps, the shadow effects change a bit,
但是城堡的透视图基本上保持不变
but the fort’s perspective fundamentally stays the same.
那就像从高空俯瞰的真实景象一样
That’s similar to a real view from far above,
距离减少了改变视角带来的影响
where distance reduces the effects of shifting perspective.
但是莱昂纳多并没有一颗卫星能看的那么高
But Leonardo didn’t have a satellite to get up that far.
他对伊莫拉的规划是象征性想象的壮举
His plan of Imola was a feat of symbolic imagination.
而且他必须保证它的准确性
And he had to make it accurate.
根据他的草图 以往的作品
Based on sketches, previous work
以及他对伊莫拉地图的设计
and the design of his Imola map,
我们可以猜到莱昂纳多是怎么做到的
we can guess at how Leonardo made it.
他可能使用了一种能测量角度的圆盘
He probably used a type of disk that could measure degrees
并由一个小指针来标记街道的拐角
and had a little pointer to mark the angles of streets
与一基准点(通常是北方)之间的角度
in relation to a stable point, usually North.
他可能用了一个罗盘
He probably used a compass to
来记录镇子城墙的方位
record the orientation of the town’s surrounding walls
他在每一个拐角处都会测量
He did this at every turn.
才能让他准确地将城墙呈现在纸上
which helped him accurately translate the walls onto paper.
注意这个覆盖在地图上的圆形
Note the circular shape here, overlaid on the map.
为了建立比例尺
To establish scale,
莱昂纳多还需要测量这些拐角之间的距离
Leonardo also needed to measure the distance between all of these angles.
他可能是用脚步来丈量的
He probably paced this out by foot,
或者可能用了一种里程记录仪
or maybe using an odometer,
轮子带动齿轮 每隔一段固定时间就让一个小球掉进篮子
with wheels that turned gears that measured distance by dropping a ball
从而测得距离
into a bucket at set intervals.
达芬奇把角度和距离结合起来
With the angles and distance together,
创作的一幅平面图
he could create a plan,
几百年后才有人能检查他是否画得准确
hundreds of years, before anyone could check if he got it right.
这幅令人叹为观止的地图
The stunning map from 1551
由另一莱昂纳多在1551年制成
by another Leonardo,
展示了莱昂纳多·达芬奇的方法所蕴含的潜力
shows the potential Leonardo da Vinci’s method had.
所有这些早期的平面地图都有需要注意的地方
All these early ichnographic maps have asterisks.
这一幅也有其不准确或艺术夸大之处
This one was spotted with its own inaccuracies and artistic flourishes,
反映了项目的宏大
a reflection of the scope of the project.
反过来 莱昂纳多画的伊莫拉也有缺点
In turn, Leonardo’s Imola had quibbles too.
他可能使用了一些以前的调查
He probably used parts of previous surveys
和其他艺术技巧
and other artistic techniques.
虽然看上去他精确地测绘出了城墙
It also appears that he measured the town’s walls precisely,
但是镇子内部的角度则自由发挥了一些
but took more liberties with the angles in the town’s interior.
但即使有艺术上的加工
But even with artistic license,
这张地图的意义也远远大于堡垒和城镇本身
this remains a map of more than a fort and town.
它是一个从神话和主观的地理到
It’s a transition from a geography of myth and perception
客观信息的转变
to one about information, drawn plainly.
这是一幅伊莫拉的地图
It’s a map of Imola,
但是在16世纪初期
but in the early 1500s
它也是地图的未来
it was a map of the future, too.

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视频概述

早在1502年,达芬奇就绘制出了与今天卫星图像相差无几的伊莫拉平面图。他是如何做到的?

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视频来源

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