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如何去除激光纹身 – 译学馆
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如何去除激光纹身

How Laser Tattoo Removal Works - Smarter Every Day 123

嗨喽 我是Destin
Hey it’s me Destin
欢迎回到每日聪明一点点
Welcome back to Smarter Every Day.
在上一个视频中我们聊到了如何
So in the last video we talked about what it
用慢镜头来展现纹身的制作过程
was like to get a tattoo in slow motion.
这次我们就来聊聊
But this time we’re gonna talk about the
去除纹身的过程 这更加复杂
removal process. It’s way more complicated.
它包含物理原理 比如 热力学
It involves physics like thermodynamics,
光学 甚至还包含生物和化学原理
optics, even biology and chemistry are involved.
所以 在今天的每日聪明一点点 我们将要
So today on Smarter Every Day we’re gonna go
用一点墨水 然后找一个外科整形医生
get some ink and then go to a plastic surgeon
来看看是否能去除纹身 一起来看看吧
and see if we can get it removed. Check it out.
Destin:我能偷点墨水吗 当然
(Destin) Can I steal some ink? – Yeah.
谢谢你 好啦
– Thanks. Yes.
那么 在我们聊如何让墨水
So before we talk about how to get the ink
离开身体之前 咱们先来聊聊到底是如何把墨水
out of the body let’s talk about what exactly
弄到身体里去的
you’re putting into it.
很多人没有意识到一点 那就是
Most people don’t realize this but the bright
纹身墨水中鲜艳的颜色都是从
colors in tattoo inks are actually created from
重金属混合物中提取出来的
compounds that mostly use heavy metals.
我知道 这听起来太疯狂了 不是吗
I know, that’s kind of crazy right?
我的意思是 你把这么多的液体
I mean, you go to all these great lengths at a
在无菌的纹身室里
tattoo parlor to have a sterile field so no
进行无菌转换 但是你仔细想想
pathogens transfer, but if you think about it,
他们本质上就是用一种干净的方法
they’re essentially making a very clean way
把这些重金属注射到你的体内
for you to inject heavy metals into your body.
你好好想一想 真的是挺疯狂的
It’s kind of crazy if you think about it.
好啦 下面我们和聪明人聊会天
Anyway, let’s go talk to a smart guy.
好的 我们想知道如何
OK, so we we want to know how to remove
用激光去除纹身 所以我们和Lappert医生一起探讨一下
a tattoo with a laser so we’re here with Dr Lappert,
一位外科整形医生 很荣幸
plastic surgeon. – Pleasure.
好的 我想问些问题
– Yes, so I have some questions.
在你旁边有一些很大的机器
You’ve got some big machines beside you here,
是的
– Sure.
我猜 这些是激光仪吗
– I’m assuming these are lasers?
是的
– Yes they are.
这一件是极速短脉冲激光仪
This one over here is an ultra short pulse laser
我们将用它来去除纹身
that we use for the tattoo removal.
我们谈的是纳秒级别的吗
– We’re talking nanosecond level?
不 还要短
– No. Even shorter than that.
真的吗
– Really.
皮秒级
– Picosecond level.
真的啊
– Really.
就是说 小数点后放十一个零 之后
– So a decimal point, eleven zeroes, and then put a digit
把数字放在后面 就会得到一个皮秒级的单位
in there somewhere and you’ve got picosecond time scale.
这是……这是紫萃宝石激光仪
So this is.. this one here is an alexandrite laser,
它是可调节的 因为它内部有
and alexandrite lasers are sort of tuneable within a
固定的微小频率幅度 但是我们将会
certain narrow frequency range but we’re gonna
用775毫微米的频率来进行操作
be operating at about 755 nanometers with this thing.
哇 是在红外线下 对吗
– Oh wow. So that’s just in the infrared right?
是的
– Right.
在我们开始移除之前 我想弄明白
– Alright before we start zapping stuff I want to
它到底是怎么移除的
know exactly what it is we’re going to zap.
这有一滴纹身用的墨水
I’ve got a little drop of tattoo ink here and
我把它放到载片上 然后放到
I’m gonna put it on this slide and place
显微镜下面 希望我们能
it under my microscope in hopes that we can
看到这些金属
see those metals.
当我们放大的时候你可以看到这些细碎的
When we zoom in you can see these little bitty
墨水微粒在移动旋转 然后就会出现
ink particles moving around, and then there’s
一些大一点的块状体
these much bigger chunks.
在进一步研究之前 花一分钟
Take just a second before we go further
回想一下纹身进行时的慢动作
and remember what that slow motion tattooing
我在上一集里面讲过的
I recorded in the last episode looked like.
好啦 现在我们知道了 墨水看起来
Alright, now that we know what the ink looks
像是在做机械运动 我们能画一张更好的图
like mechanically, we can draw a better picture
来展示到底发生了什么
of what’s happening.
许多针在刺穿你的皮肤
Multiple needles are puncturing your skin
拖拽出或大或小的墨水微粒
and dragging both big and little ink particles
穿透表皮层到达真皮层
down through the epidermis into the dermis.
从这一刻起 纹身已经完成了 然而
– From the moment the tattoo is placed however
你的身体正在试图摆脱它
your body’s trying to get rid of it.
你的身体意识到这是一种陌生的物质
Your body recognizes that it’s foreign material
就好像你在皮肤下面放了疏棉一样
as if you got a sliver under your skin.
所以你的免疫系统赶来
So your immune system is coming over
发现这种物质在动 “嗨
looking at this stuff going “hey this
这东西并不属于这里”
doesn’t belong here”.
白细胞赶来移除这种色素
White blood cells come in to remove the pigment.
白细胞是非常小的细胞
Now the white blood cell is a very small little cell
然而相对来说 在显微镜下观察的话
whereas the pigment granule is a relatively large
色素颗粒却比较大
structure if you looked at it under the microscope.
白细胞确实赶了过来
That white blood cell actually comes over and
试图吞没色素颗粒 但是因为
tries to engulf the pigment granule, and because
白细胞太小了 而色素颗粒
the white cell is so small and the pigment granule is
又很大 所以移除过程异常艰难
so big, that munching away is a very difficult thing.
就好像试图从大象身上啃下一口来一样
It’s like trying to take a bite out of an elephant.
好啦 尽管这看起来很奇怪 但我必须这么做
– Alright, so this is about to get weird but I have to do this.
我想看看我的血细胞和
I want to know how big my blood cells are relative
墨水微粒比 到底有多大
to the ink particles.
所以 显然地 我需要刺破手指来取一点
So obviously we have to prick my finger and get some
血 然后把它和墨水一起放到这里
blood and put it in there with the ink.
好啦 开始吧 我们把显微镜
Alright here we go and we put the microscope
打开 看起来太不可思议了
slide in and it is more awesome than I
比我想象的不可思议多了
thought it would be.
它就是 瞧它
It is, look at it.
我们把血细胞和墨水混在一起
So we’ve got blood cells interacting with ink
这样我们就能看到两者的相对大小了 对吧
so we can see the relative scale of the two right?
有些墨水微粒
So we’ve got these little bitty ink particles
比血细胞还要小
that are smaller than the blood cells
也有大一些的墨水微粒
and we have the larger ink particles that
比血细胞还要大
are larger than the blood cells.
这意味着小的微粒
That means the small ones can be drug away
会被吞噬细胞或是白细胞拖走
by the phagocytes or the white blood cells,
但是大的微粒却不行
but the larger ones can’t.
这就是为什么纹身是永久性的
That’s why tattoos are permanent,
却又会变淡的原因
but that’s also why they fade right,
因为一部分的墨水微粒被吞噬了
because part of the ink is drug away
但是还有部分墨水依然存在
but part of the ink stays.
真是不可思议
That’s awesome.
简直太不可思议了
That’s like so awesome.
如果你观察一个刚刚做好的纹身
– If you look at a freshly placed tattoo,
(会看到)它看起来非常锐利 棱角分明
it looks very sharp, it has very clean edges,
色彩清晰明丽
very clear colors, very crisp.
对的
– Right.
如果你观察一个从海军陆战队退伍的射击中士的纹身
– If you look at a tattoo on a retired master gunnery sergeant
你会发现 纹身正逐渐
from the marine corps, that tattoo’s starting
淡去色彩
to look faded.
是的
– Right.
原因就是色素慢慢的被白细胞吞噬
– Because what’s happening is that pigment is being eaten
并被通过皮肤里的淋巴
by those white blood cells and carried through
运走 因为它通向
the lymphatics of the skin, because it’s headed for
你的肝脏 所以这个过程大概需要
your liver, and that process has been going on
射击中士35到40年的时间
in the gunnery sergeant for 35-40 years.
我发现个有意思的事儿 你好像在拿当兵的开涮啊
– I find that hilarious that you’re picking on gunnys
因为我认识一些军人
because I know a couple of gunnys.
好吧 我是退役的海军
– Well I’m retired navy.
噢 那你可以这么说
– Oh so you’re allowed to say it.
哦 没错 我曾经在海军陆战队服役过几年
– Oh yeah I served the marine corps for years.
好的 很棒
– OK good.
问题就在于大小
– The problem is that the relative size of the
白细胞的大小和色素颗粒的大小
white blood cell and the pigment granule,
大的色素颗粒 小的白细胞
big pigment granule, little white blood cell.
所以激光仪要做的事情就是 如果你有
So what the laser does, is if you have the
型号正确的激光仪 当你用光脉冲击打时
right type of laser when you hit it with a pulse
用光脉冲击打色素颗粒
of light, hit the pigment granule with a pulse of light,
色素颗粒将会被打碎
that pigment granule will shatter, OK.
因为你把色素颗粒打碎了
And so as you shatter the pigment granules
(就是说)你把它们变小了 易于被吞噬
you’re making them smaller and more edible.
真的
– Really.
所以你加快了
– So you’re accelerating the speed with which
所以你加快了白细胞的工作效率
the white blood cells, and the efficiency with
如此一来白细胞就能移除色素颗粒
which the white blood cells can remove the pigment.
这样一来他们就能把它带到肝脏部位
– So they’re trying to take it to the liver.
说的对 这就是它的工作原理
– Correct. That’s the way out.
所以你将用激光仪来震碎墨水颗粒
– So you’re gonna zap the ink with this laser.
是的
– Correct.
然后白细胞将赶来
– And then the white blood cells are gonna go
运走已经破碎的墨水颗粒
grab the broken up ink particles and
把它们运到肝脏部位
take it to the liver.
说的对 通过
– That is correct. Through the lymphatic
皮肤中的淋巴通道进入更大
channels of the skin, into the larger lymph
更深的淋巴通道 最终
channels deeper down, and ultimately
通过肝脏来进行排泄
through the liver for cleaning up and excretion.
那么光学能量源
– So how does an optical energy source
是如何粉碎色素颗粒的呢
shatter a mechanical ink particle?
思考一下
Think about this.
假设我们有一盏能发热的灯 我们
Let’s say we have a heat lamp, and we
把它打开 它会散发出辐射能
turn it on and we shine radiation energy
照射色素颗粒的一边
on one side of an ink particle.
那么将会发生什么事情呢 它将会加热
What’s gonna happen is it’s gonna heat up
它所照射的那一边 然后根据热量转化率
that side and then the heat transfer
它将导致整个墨水颗粒
coefficient is gonna cause the entire ink particle
从这一边到那一边完全受热 对吧
to heat up from this side towards this side right?
这便是热量梯度
There’s gonna be a heat gradient.
如果我们真的有一个非常非常热的灯
What if we had a really really really hot heating lamp
那么这个进程将会非常非常的快
and it was very very fast.
假设激光仪和墨水的颜色都对
Assuming the laser and the ink are the right color,
激光仪将会照射墨水颗粒的一边
this laser will shine on one side of the particle
迅速加热 这一边将会分解
and heat it up so fast that only that side grows
根据热膨胀原理
due to thermal expansion.
然而另一边却没有时间分解
The other side however doesn’t have time to catch up,
所以它还是冷却的 这会使整个
so it’s still cool which causes huge internal
色素颗粒被分解
stresses which rip apart the particle.
这也就是叫它时间游戏的原因
That’s why it’s a time game.
你加热其中一边的速度越快
The faster you can heat up one side relative
就能越快的分解墨水颗粒
to the other, the more likely you can rip apart the ink.
曝光时间越长 影响的群组也就越多
The more exposure time, the more tissue you affect.
对的
– Correct.
但是如果曝光时间越短
– But the smaller exposure time, the more
且打的准的话 就会越集中
localized if you hit the right chromophore.
对的
– Correct.
我觉得我知道了一些奥秘
– I feel like I know the big words now. [laugh]
太不可思议了
It’s awesome.
所以只要被打碎 白细胞
So once it’s shattered, the white blood cells
就会赶到这些被打碎的
are gonna come get those little broken
墨水颗粒处 那他们运送到淋巴结
particles of ink, take it to the lymph nodes
然后丢到肝部 然后就会
then dump it off to the liver and then you’re
最终通过排便 把纹身排出体外
eventually gonna poop out your tattoo.
这就是它的工作原理
That’s how it works.
目标光柱是氦氖激光
– The aiming beam is a helium neon laser,
能量非常小 但是它能让我观察
very low energy but it allows me to see where the
脉冲到底是如何运动的
actual pulse is gonna go.
好了 准备好了吗
Alright you ready?
准备好了
– I am now ready.
好的 一起来看看吧
– OK here we go.
我得一直这么做 你……
I’m just gonna keep treating while you…
你可以看到我说的
You can see what I mean about the
逐渐散去光泽 对吧
frosting right?
我看到了
– I do.
它是如何穿过真皮层的呢
– How it elevates the top layer of skin there.
过来看一下
– So there you go.
你所看到的这种洗白的过程
That white effect that you’re seeing
被称作消光 它只能坚持
is called frosting, and it only lasts for
几秒钟时间 它本质上是一种震动波
just a few seconds. It’s basically a shock
发生在颗粒物层面
wave that’s happening at the particle level.
Lappert医生说 根据颜色
Dr Lappert says that depending on the color
的不同 在身体完全加工处理这些墨水前
this could take just a few treatments
有几种方法可用
before the body can fully process the ink.
所以我希望通过这一集
Alright so I hope the take away from this
如果你想要去纹身
episode was, if you’re gonna get a tattoo,
好好想一想你到底在做什么
know exactly what you’re doing.
你把纹身纹到自己的体内
What are you getting tattooed into your body,
意味着把化学品放置到体内
meaning chemically what are they putting
这也就是设计的意图
into you, and also what is the design.
好好考虑清楚 因为
Think it through because it’s a lot harder
去除纹身比做纹身要难
to get a tattoo off than it is to put it on.
好好考虑一下吧
Think about it.
好了 如果你对
Alright, so if you enjoyed all the sciences
本集中涉及到的科学 如光学 热力学
in this episode, optics, thermodynamics,
化学等感兴趣 你会喜欢这本有声读物
chemistry. You will enjoy this audio book
我要做个推荐
I’m about to recommend.
很多人都听说过Audible.com
Many of you know that Audible.com
赞助的每天聪明一点点 但是
sponsor Smarter Every Day, but you
你一定要听听这本书
just need to listen to this book, I don’t
我不在意你怎么获得这本书 如果你登陆
care how you do it. If you go to
audible.com/smarter 你能够
audible.com/smarter you can get
免费获得这本书 它是
this book for free. It’s called
Andy Weir 写的The Martian
The Martian by Andy Weir.
这本书非常棒
This book is incredible.
你一定要去听听看
You just need to listen to it.
我想成为那个
I would love to be the guy that
向你推荐这本书的人 但是你
introduced you to it, but you just
需要用自己的阅历来解读这本书
need to experience it on your own
因为他以火星为载体
because he’s stranded on mars and he
而且他自己也曾经参与过百战天龙
has to MacGyver himself off.
想想吧
Think about that.
谈论的都是无线电电子学
We’re talking like radio electronics,
轨道力学 火箭推进
orbital mechanics, rocket propulsion,
化学 生物化学 热电学
chemistry, biochemistry, thermo.
很不可思议
It’s awesome!
不管怎么 Andy Weir 写的The Martian
Anyway, The Martian by Andy Weir,
我真的是非常非常喜欢
I really really really enjoyed it.
如果你喜欢本期节目的话
If you liked this episode you’re
你也将会喜欢它的 你肯定会的
gonna like it too. So there you go.
一定要去体验一下 然后你会
Please experience that, and you can
回来谢我的 然而 不要
thank me later. However don’t do
做我曾经做过的蠢事 和
what I did and start the book with your
你两岁的儿子一起在车里读书
two year old in the car because there’s
因为确实会有点吵 很抱歉
a little bit of cussing. I apologize about that
但是我觉得很值得
but I think it’s worth it.
不管怎样 audible.com/smarter
Anyway, audible.com/smarter.
希望你能喜欢本期节目
I hope you enjoyed this episode and it
并且能关注我们
earned your subscription.
如果不的话 也还是要谢谢你观看我们的视频
If not, thank you anyway for watching,
真的很感激
I really appreciate that.
我是Destin 你会每天聪明一点点的
I’m Destin, you’re getting Smarter Every Day.
祝你愉快哦
Have a good one.
如果有人想去除纹身的话
If somebody’s going to get a tattoo removed,
会问些问题
what are the questions they need to ask,
简单讲一下
just briefly.
我开车到Lappert医生的办公室要多久啊
– How long will it take me to drive to Dr Lappert’s office.
我们稍后作答 这就是你的医生……
We will leave it with that. There’s your doctor..
Lappert 医生 一位外科整形医生 你懂了吧
Dr Lappert, plastic surgeon. There you go.
哥们 你真的很棒
You are something else man.

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译制信息
视频概述

视频介绍了如何利用激光去除纹身的工作原理 朋友们进行纹身时要谨慎哦

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

风吹桃

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0B7F5UbTOQ

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