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工作压力如何影响健康? – 译学馆
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工作压力如何影响健康?

How Job Stress Affects Your Health | WSJ

– Nowadays, more and more workers report feeling stressed.
现如今 越来越多的上班族感到有压力
I can relate.
我深有同感
Like most people, I get nervous when I’m being put on the spot at a meeting
和大多数人一样 在会议上被要求当场发言
or need to respond to my editor’s criticism.
或面对编辑的批评时 我会紧张不安
I’m about to go into a meeting that I’m stressed about.
我要去参加一个让我压力很大的会议
I have two deadlines to meet.
我有两个快截止的任务要赶
To learn how stress at work affects our health,
为了了解工作压力如何影响健康
I’m enrolling in a scientific experiment.
我报名参加了一个科学实验
Big sigh of relief.
如释重负
Let’s see what the week brings.
看看这周会发生什么吧
– There’s a whole cascade of physiological responses that occur under stress.
人在压力状态下会产生一系列的生理反应
And each of us differs in the way in which we respond.
并且每个人的反应机制都不同
有关工作的科学知识 压力造成的健康代价
– Columbia University professor Richard Sloan and his lab
哥伦比亚大学的教授Richard Sloan和他的实验团队
developed a unique way to measure the impact of stress on our health.
发明了一种独特的方法来衡量压力对健康的影响
Can you tell us about the experiment
你能给我们讲讲
that I’m going to be putting myself through for the next week?
下周我要参与的实验吗?
– What we’re interested in is trying to understand
我们感兴趣的是弄明白
the underlying physiology of the experience of stress throughout the regular day.
日常压力对应的潜在生理学机制
– [Daniela] For seven days, I’ll need to wear a small portable heart monitor
在这7天时间里 我需要戴一个小型便携式心脏监测仪
and fill out a questionnaire on a modified iPod.
然后在一个改装过的iPod上填写问卷
For this study, Richard Sloan’s lab has developed an app
为了这项研究 Richard Sloan的实验室开发了一款应用程序
that will prompt me to log my mood,
这促使我每天必须记录我的情绪
who I’m with,
我和谁在一起
and how stressed I am 12 to 15 times a day.
我的压力有多大这些数据12-15次
– With the combination of these two sets of data
结合这两组数据
we’ll be able to get a pretty interesting picture
我们会得到一个有趣的图像
of how your heart responds to a variety of different circumstances.
呈现出心脏应对各种不同环境的反应
– [Daniela] Under stress, glands above the kidneys
压力状态下
release stress-related hormones like adrenaline,
肾上腺会释放与压力相关的荷尔蒙 如肾上腺素
which increases our heart rate.
这会促使心率加快
We sweat more, and the way we metabolize food changes.
人体出汗会变多 新陈代谢的方式也会发生改变
Our immune system goes into overdrive, and that can cause inflammation.
我们的免疫系统会超负荷运转 会引起炎症
This response is meant to protect us against against an infection.
炎症是为了保护我们免受感染
– That’s good, as long as the response, the inflammatory response, doesn’t outlast the challenge.
那没有坏处 除非炎症持续时间比感染时间更久
– If our immune system is overactive for too long,
如果免疫系统过于活跃 且持续时间太长的话
it won’t be able to protect us against a cold or an infectious disease.
它将不能帮我们抵御感冒或传染病
Is stress always bad?
压力总是不好的吗?
– No.
并非如此
Excessive stress is bad.
过度的压力是不好的
– [Daniela] A certain amount of stress can help us be engaged and work better,
适度的压力可以帮助我们更加专注工作
but chronic stress can have a negative effect on our health.
但是慢性压力会对我们的健康产生负面影响
– One of the classic cases of extended stress is caregiving.
慢性压力的一个典型来源就是照顾他人
Stressful work experiences, having a work environment that is…not supportive,
工作压力大 缺乏鼓励的工作环境
having… a boss who is frequently… angry or hostile, critical
易怒 不友善 爱批评人的老板
is another chronic stressor.
是另一个慢性压力源
– Chronic stress puts us at risk for developing a variety of diseases.
慢性压力会使我们面临罹患多种疾病的风险
It changes the way our bodies release insulin,
它改变了我们身体分泌胰岛素的方式
the hormone that regulate level of sugar in the blood,
改变了调节血糖水平的激素
and that increases the risk for developing diabetes.
这些都会增加患糖尿病的风险
The prolonged inflammation linked to chronic stress
慢性压力引起的长期炎症会损伤血管
can damage blood vessels, and that can up the risk of heart disease.
从而增加患心脏病的风险
My job is demanding, the hours are long,
我的工作要求很高 工作时间很长
and I’m curious to know how I’m coping.
我很想知道我是如何应付的
This is my first home video entry,
这是我的第一个视频记录
and I’ve been wearing the heart monitor now for probably five hours.
我已经戴了5小时心脏监测器
Logging and wearing a heart monitor only added to my everyday stress.
定时记录和戴心脏监测器只会增加我每天的压力
I had to make sure the data and circumstances were recorded.
但我必须确保数据和情况都被记录下来
I’m about to go into a stressful meeting.
我要去参加一个令我压力很大的会议
Hopefully it’ll go well.
希望一切顺利
But the experiment also helped me understand
但这个实验也帮我搞清楚了
who and what stresses me out
哪些人和事会让我有压力
and the impact of confronting personal challenges.
以及个人挑战给我带来的影响
Knowing that scientists were going to sift through my data
知道科学家们要仔细查看我的数据
made me work out harder.
所以我更努力地锻炼
It also made me more conscious of my work-life balance.
也更加注重工作与生活的平衡
I am basically gonna go back to work…
我差不多要回去工作了……
seven hours after I left the office.
在我离开办公室七个小时后
It’s Wednesday night at…9:04 p.m.,
今天是星期三晚上9:04
and I’m still at the office.
而我还在办公室
2:17 a.m. on Saturday, September…
九月 星期六 凌晨2:17
It’s July.
现在应该是7月
It’s July.
是7月
Do I look like a stress case in this data?
在这些数据中能看出我压力很大吗?
– You don’t report a lot of stress.
报告显示 你没有很多压力
Over the seven-day period when you were prompted
过去七天时间里
about whether you were experiencing stress right now,
在被问道你现在是否有压力时
only 12 times did you report yes to that out of about 70 or so.
大约70次提问中 你只有12次说“是”
– Overall, my cardiogram was perfectly normal.
总的来说 我的心电图完全正常
But even though I wasn’t consistently stressed all week,
但即使我的压力不是持续整个星期
I remember moments when my heart rate changed.
我依然记得我的心率变化的时刻
For instance, when I had to pitch a new project,
例如 当我要推进一个新项目
the heart monitor picked up on that.
心脏监测器就监测到了这一点
I’m sitting in Bryant Park.
我正坐在布莱恩特公园
A long walk outside after some weekend work
一周的工作后 在外面散步
helped me cope with stress.
能帮助我缓解压力
I feel pretty relaxed and energized.
我感觉很放松 精力充沛
It’s really nice to be outside.
外面真好
For my heart rate, it meant that variability went up,
对我的心率来说 这意味着变异性增加了
which is good, because stress usually does the opposite.
这是好事 因为压力通常造成相反的影响
For instance, when I was getting a story ready to publish,
例如 当我准备发表一篇文章时
it felt like a pit in my stomach,
感觉就像胃里有个洞
and my heart rate was still.
我的心率很平稳
So are some of the traps of stress of our own making?
那么 有些压力是不是自己凭空想出来的呢?
– Yes, in a sense.
是的 从某种意义上说
Some are, and some are not.
有些是 有些不是
If you work in an incredibly stressful environment
如果你在一个压力非常大的环境中工作
because your supervisors are nasty, and you have deadlines,
因为你的上司很讨厌 而且任务有截止期限
and you have relatively limited control over your work experience but lots of demands,
你能积累到的工作经验相对有限 并且工作要求一大堆
those things aren’t really not of your own making,
这些原因并不是你凭空想出来的
and it’s generally much more beneficial and more effective
这种情况下 如果可能的话
to change the environment if it’s at all possible.
改变工作环境可能更有利 有效
– [Daniela] If changing environments or jobs isn’t an option,
如果无法改变环境或工作
then research suggests reframing your experience or even relaxation exercises
研究表明 换种方法思考工作经历 或者做放松练习
might help reduce the impact of chronic stress.
可能会有助于减少慢性压力的影响
It was reassuring to know my heart was resilient
了解到我的心脏能弹性面对工作日遇到的挑战
to the challenges of my work week,
这让我感到欣慰
or perhaps my workout balance stopped my stress.
又或者是工作和生活的平衡缓解了我的压力
– You could argue the heart rate variability is a measure of resilience.
你可以认为心率变异性是弹性的衡量标准
It’s a measure of the flexibility of the cardiovascular system to respond to a challenge,
它衡量的是心血管系统应对挑战的反应灵活性
and that is what resilience is.
这就是弹性
From an evolutionary perspective, having higher levels of heart rate variability
从进化的角度来看 有较高水平的心率变异性
gives you more room to raise or lower your heart rate
意味着在你经历挑战时
in response to a challenge that you might experience.
心率加快或降低的空间可以更大
– Relaxing a little bit more today.
我今天比较放松
I don’t have a pressing deadline.
没有紧迫的截止日期
Hopefully no breaking news.
希望没有突发事件
There are many ways to improve our resilience to stress.
有很多方法可以提高我们对压力的适应能力
Science shows that mindfulness exercises like yoga and meditation can help.
科学表明 像瑜伽和冥想这样的正念练习会有所帮助
Sleep is important.
睡眠也很重要
Also, consider hitting the gym.
此外 可以考虑去健身房
– Increasing your cardio-respiratory fitness
增强心肺功能
is associated with an increase in heart rate variability.
与心率变异性的增加密切相关
As a cardiology colleague of mine used to say,
我的一位心脏病学同事曾说过
the heart is happiest when it dances.
心在跳舞时最开心的

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视频概述

工作压力会影响人体的各个方面,使人体免疫功能下降,并且面临罹患多种疾病的危险。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

紫琳轩

审核员

审核员BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHgWwSGZ_-o

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