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同声传译是怎么玩弄语言的 – 译学馆
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同声传译是怎么玩弄语言的

How interpreters juggle two languages at once - Ewandro Magalhaes

1956年 在墨西哥的外交招待会上
In 1956, during a diplomatic reception in Moscow,
苏联领导人尼基塔·谢尔盖耶维奇·赫鲁晓夫告诉西方集团大使
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev told Western Bloc ambassadors,
“不管你们喜不喜欢 历史都在我们这一边 我们会为你们掘土”
“My vas pokhoronim!”
他的翻译把他的话翻译成
His interpreter rendered that into English as,
“我们要埋葬你们”
“We will bury you!”
这句话震惊了西方国家
This statement sent shockwaves through the Western world,
使在冷战期间的苏联与美国关系
heightening the tension between the Soviet Union and the US
进一步降到了冰点
who were in the thick of the Cold War.
有一些人认为就这一事故会使东西关系倒退十年
Some believe this incident alone set East/West relations back a decade.
最终证明发现 对于赫鲁晓夫的言辞翻译的有些太夸张了
As it turns out, Khrushchev’s remark was translated a bit too literally.
鉴于上下文 他的话应该渲染为:
Given the context, his words should have been rendered as,
“我们会活着看你自掘坟墓”
“We will live to see you buried,”
意味着共产主义会超过资本主义
meaning that Communism would outlast Capitalism,
变成了一个威胁性更小的评论
a less threatening comment.
虽然赫鲁晓夫预期的意思
Though the intended meaning was eventually clarified,
最终被澄清了
the initial impact of Khrushchev’s apparent words
但如果这句话走上了世界的道路 可能就会引发核战争
put the world on a path that could have led to nuclear armageddon.
所以现在 当我们考虑到语言与文化交流的复杂性
So now, given the complexities of language and cultural exchange,
怎样才能避免这样的事情反复发生?
how does this sort of thing not happen all the time?
大部分答案说是取决于翻译官的技能与培训
Much of the answer lies with the skill and training of interpreters
去克服语言障碍
to overcome language barriers.
在翻译历史上 口译主要是按顺序做的
For most of history, interpretation was mainly done consecutively,
说话者和翻译员会停顿允许对方说话
with speakers and interpreters making pauses to allow each other to speak.
但是在无线电技术问世后
But after the advent of radio technology,
一种新的同声传声系统在二战后发展起来
a new simultaneous interpretations system was developed in the wake of World War II.
在同步模式下
In the simultaneous mode
翻译者可以在瞬间为说话者翻译
interpreters instantaneously translate a speaker’s words
并将翻译内容在说话者说话时传入麦克风
into a microphone while he speaks.
没有停顿 观众可以选择
Without pauses, those in the audience can choose the language
自己可听懂的语言
in which they want to follow.
表面上看起来是无缝的
On the surface, it all looks seamless,
但是在幕后
but behind the scenes,
人工翻译人员在不间断的工作着
human interpreters work incessantly
保证每一个观点都被正确翻译
to ensure every idea gets across as intended.
这可不是一个简单的任务
And that is no easy task.
即使是双语流利的人员也要经过两年的训练
It takes about two years of training for already fluent bilingual professionals
去扩大他们的词汇量并且掌握主要的技能
to expand their vocabulary and master the skills necessary
最终成为一名会议翻译人员
to become a conference interpreter.
听和说在同一时刻 去顺应不自然的工作任务
To get used to the unnatural task of speaking while they listen,
这些翻译学员是说话者的影子
students shadow speakers
并重复他们的每一个字 就像是在同一语言中听到的一样
and repeat their every word exactly as heard in the same language.
随着时间的推移 他们开始释义
In time, they begin to paraphrase what is said,
根据实际情况进行风格调整
making stylistic adjustments as they go.
再某些特殊点上 运用第二种语言进行介绍
At some point, a second language is introduced.
翻译人员运用这种方法练习来建立新的大脑思维方式
Practicing in this way creates new neural pathways in the interpreter’s brain,
再加上不断的努力 逐渐形成为第二天性
and the constant effort of reformulation gradually becomes second nature.
随着时间的推移和努力的工作
Over time and through much hard work,
翻译官在掌握大量的技巧后 逐渐提高速度
the interpreter masters a vast array of tricks to keep up with speed,
处理具有挑战性的术语
deal with challenging terminology,
并处理大量外语口音
and handle a multitude of foreign accents.
他们会运用缩写来缩短较长的名字
They may resort to acronyms to shorten long names,
选择特定术语
choose generic terms over specific,
或参考幻灯片和其他视觉助手
or refer to slides and other visual aides.
当他们在寻找最准确的同义词时
They can even leave a term in the original language,
他们甚至可以在原先的语言中留下一个术语
while they search for the most accurate equivalent.
翻译官们在面对混乱的场面时善于保持沉着冷静
Interpreters are also skilled at keeping aplomb in the face of chaos.
要记住的是 他们没法控制谁会说什么
Remember, they have no control over who is going to say what,
或者发言人的发音是否清晰
or how articulate the speaker will sound.
意外随时都会发生此外
A curveball can be thrown at any time.
他们经常在有成千上万人的会议上执行任务
Also, they often perform to thousands of people
和一些非常威严的地点
and in very intimidating settings,
比如说联合国大会
like the UN General Assembly.
去控制自己的情绪
To keep their emotions in check,
他们会仔细认真的准备一项任务
they carefully prepare for an assignment,
提前建立词汇表
building glossaries in advance,
大量阅读会议有关题材
reading voraciously about the subject matter,
并回顾以前谈论的话题最终
and reviewing previous talks on the topic.
在会议上翻译官配对进行翻译
Finally, interpreters work in pairs.
当其中一个同事正在进项忙碌的实时翻译
While one colleague is busy translating incoming speeches in real time,
另一名通过定位文件进行支持
the other gives support by locating documents,
查词汇
looking up words,
并寻找相关信息
and tracking down pertinent information.
因为同声传译需要精神极度集中
Because simultaneous interpretation requires intense concentration,
每三十分钟 同伴交换角色
every 30 minutes, the pair switches roles.
成功很大程度上是依赖于熟练的合作
Success is heavily dependent on skillful collaboration.
语言十分复杂
Language is complex,
当翻译一些抽象或微妙的概念时容易失去方向
and when abstract or nuanced concepts get lost in translation,
后果或许是充满灾难性的
the consequences may be catastrophic.
正如玛格丽特·阿特伍德所说“战争是当语言失败时发生的事情”
As Margaret Atwood famously noted, “War is what happens when language fails.”
所有会议的口译人员都意识到这一点
Conference interpreters of all people are aware of that
在幕后努力工作以确保这样的事情不会发生
and work diligently behind the scenes to make sure it never does.

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