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疟疾为何如此致命 – 译学馆
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疟疾为何如此致命

How Humans Made Malaria So Deadly

嗨 我是Minute Earth的凯特
Hi, this is Kate from Minute Earth.
尽管各种新的健康威胁占据了大部分新闻头条
While newer health threats grab most of the headlines,
疟疾-一种由蚊子传播 会导致细胞破裂的血液寄生虫-
malaria – the mosquito-borne, cell-rupturing blood parasite
仍旧是世界上最致命的传染性疾病
remains among the world’s deadliest infectious diseases.
但在我们归咎于疟疾之前 值得注意的是
But before we go blaming that on malaria, it’s worth noting that
我们人类才是让它变成杀手的根源
we humans made this parasite the killer it is today.
这并不是说我们以某种方式创造出了疟疾
That’s not to say we somehow invented malaria,
在此之前它就进化了 在非洲撒哈拉以南地区
It evolved WAY before we did. In sub-Saharan Africa,
它们以某种方式从水藻转到蚊子身上
likely from an aquatic algae that somehow began hitching mosquito
再传给众多动物 并以它们的肝脏和血细胞为食
rides into lots of animals and feasting on their liver and blood cells;
最终大约在50万年前 它感染上了人类
eventually, about half a million years ago, it landed in humans.
但最早出现的人类疟疾并不是那么致命
But the earliest forms of human malaria weren’t actually that deadly.
事实上 由于当时人口分散且稀缺
In fact, because human populations were so scattered and small,
任何超级致命的疟原虫都会迅速地消亡
any mega-deadly varieties of malaria would have quickly stranded themselves and fizzled out.
所以 早期的会疟原虫通过慢性地侵蚀采集者宿主
Instead, the earliest malaria parasites wreaked slow havoc on their hunter-gatherer hosts,
让自己有多年时间在人类群落间传播
allowing themselves years to hitchhike from group to group.
但随后人类发明了农业 对疟疾们来说这是一个转折点
But then humans invented agriculture, which turned out to be a real game-changer for malaria,
原因有二
for two reasons.
首先 伐木造田让水坑数量增多
First, clearing forests for cropland increased the number of puddles,
换句话说 蚊子繁殖的窝点增多了
or, as we might as well call them, mosquito sex dens.
其次 稳定的食物来源使人口变得更多更密集
Second, our new stable food source led to bigger, denser human populations.
直到出现恶性疟原虫 这是一种致命的新型疟疾
Enter Plasmodium falciparum, a new, nasty strain of malaria
它们能如此快地从大猩猩转到了人类身上
that had recently hopped over from gorillas to humans and just so happened
凭借的就是我们无意中滋养壮大的蚊子群体
to travel extremely well inside the very types of mosquitos we were accidentally breeding.
尽管恶性疟原虫的致死性比前代们更强 但却从未消亡过
And despite being far deadlier than its predecessors, falciparum never fizzled out.
因为持续增长的人口让它从来不愁没有受害者
Because ever-growing human settlements ensured that it never ran out of victims.
最终 它得以肆虐全世界大量的人口
Eventually, it spread through dense human populations around the world.
如今 恶性疟原虫每年仍能杀死将近50万人
And today, falciparum still kills nearly half a million people each year.
真要「感谢」……农业
Thanks…agriculture.
自公元前3000年开始的农业 为你带来了更好的食物 更嗜血的蚊子 以及更加致命的疟疾
Agriculture bringing you better food, bloodthirstier mosquitos, and deadlier malaria, since 3000 BCE.
据不明确的时间记载 疟疾在公元前8000至公元前2000年出现在非洲
Exact date uncertain, arrived in Africa between 8000 and 2000 BCE,
详见古生物学
see paleontology for details.
嘿 Minute Earth的粉丝们 结束之前我想跟你们说
Hey MinuteEarthlings! Before you go, I wanted to let you know that
本期视频由GiveWell赞助播出
this video was sponsored by GiveWell,
该组织致力于评估出最有效率的机构 以方便捐赠者捐赠
an organization devoted to identifying the most effective organizations to donate to it,
从而对全世界的人们产生影响
to make a difference for people around the world.
在GiveWell推荐榜中有一个反疟疾基金会
One of GiveWell’s top recommendations is the Against Malaria Foundation,
它通过为撒哈拉以南的人们发放蚊帐来对抗疟疾的侵扰
which helps fight malaria by distributing mosquito nets to people throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
另外配合其他措施 比如灭蚊剂和疟疾治疗药物
Along with other measures, like mosquito-killing pesticides and malaria medications,
这些蚊帐在过去15年间使疟疾死亡率降低了一半
nets have helped cut the number of deaths from malaria in half over the last 15 years.
如果你想了解怎么帮到那些受疟疾危害的人
To learn more, and find out how you can help protect people from malaria,
请访问givewell.org/AMF
visit givewell.org/AMF.

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视频概述

从50万年前至今,人们仍饱受疟疾的困扰。究竟谁才是疟疾的罪魁祸首呢?我们该如何应对疟疾呢?

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