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人类演化新说

How humans evolved from ape to modern people | Masters of Science

I’ve been researching on human evolution for about 50 years.
我研究人类进化史大概有50年了
And even 10 or 15 years ago, we had the view
就在10或15年前 我们还认为
that human evolution in the last 500,000 years
过去的50万年里 人类的进化
was a relatively simple process.
是个相对比较简单的过程
That we had a gradual change of species through time.
我们的物种随着时间而逐渐变化
A species called Homo heidelbergensis gradually
被称为海德堡人的古人种
evolved to the Neanderthals in Europe and Asia.
在欧亚大陆逐渐演化成尼安德特人
And it evolved to Homo sapiens in Africa.
在非洲演化成了智人
We now know this story is a lot more complicated than that.
我们现在知道 事实远比这个复杂得多
《科学大师》 第三季
《人类起源新说》
So here, we’ve got two Neanderthal fossils from Gibraltar.
这是我们在直布罗陀发现的两个尼安德特人化石
And the one on the left, from Forbes’ Quarry,
左边那个出土于福布斯采石场
was the first Neanderthal I ever looked at and studied.
是我研究的第一个尼安德特人
And at that time, the Neanderthals were actually
那时 尼安德特人实际上
regarded as the direct ancestors of modern humans.
被认为是现代人类的直系祖先
And if we had a fossil sequence in Europe,
如果我们有欧洲化石序列图谱的话
we would see the Neanderthals gradually evolving
就能看到尼安德特人逐渐演化为
into modern people.
现代人类的过程
We now know, in fact, that the Neanderthals and us
现在我们知道 其实尼安德特人和我们
are two separate lineages from a common ancestor,
是来自同一个祖先的两个不同分支
which generally has been regarded
这个共同的祖先通常被认为
as the species Homo heidelbergensis.
是海德堡人
And then, maybe 35,000 years ago,
然后 大约在35,000年前
it was thought that these two species
人们认为这两种人
came together in Europe.
都来到了欧洲
And very quickly, the Neanderthals were completely
很快 尼安德特人就彻底
replaced by the modern humans.
被现代人类取代了
We now know from DNA evidence,
现在我们从DNA提供的证据可知
including even on some of these Gibraltar Neanderthal fossils,
其中甚至包括一些直布罗陀尼安德特人化石的DNA信息
that actually the story is more complicated than that.
事情实际上远比这复杂得多
By the year 2010, scientists were
到2010年 科学家们
able to reconstruct whole Neanderthal genomes.
得以重建整个尼安德特人的基因组
And once those were examined
经过仔细研究
and compared with our own,
并与我们自己的基因组相对比
there was a big surprise.
有了一个惊人的发现
It turned out that most of us alive today
结果表明 我们今天活着的大部分人
have an input of about two percent
基因组中大约含有2%的
Neanderthal DNA in our genomes.
尼安德特人的DNA
And that means our ancestors
这意味着我们的祖先
must have mixed with Neanderthals,
大概在五六万年前 肯定是和尼安德特人杂居
interbred with them, maybe 50,000 or 60,000 years ago.
并混种繁殖过
So this idea that Neanderthals were
所以 尼安德特人
completely replaced by modern humans
被现代人类完全取代的说法
has been falsified by new science.
是现代科学错误的解释
And even more remarkably, both DNA and fossils
更值得一提的是 DNA和化石
are contributing to a re-evaluation
共同帮助重塑了
of the last 500,000 years or so of our evolution.
人类过去大约50万年的进化史
So in particular, this species, Homo heidelbergensis,
所以特别是海德堡人
which has been regarded as the common ancestor of us and the Neanderthals,
虽然一直被认为是我们和尼安德特人的共同祖先
possibly is too recent in time.
但在时间上可能更晚一些
DNA evidence suggests the common ancestor
DNA证据表明 我们的共同祖先
may have lived further back.
生活的年代可能在更久远以前
And not only that, studying the fossils themselves
不仅如此 对化石本身的研究
suggests that this species, Homo antecessor,
也表明 先驱人
might actually have a face that’s more like
实际上可能有一张更像
the common ancestor of us and the Neanderthals.
我们和尼安德特人共同祖先的脸
And thus, the place of Heidelbergensis is in doubt.
所以 海德堡人在这里的位置就值得怀疑了
What we can look forward to
我们期待
in the next 10 or 20 years
在未来的10或20年里
is both DNA evidence and new fossil evidence
DNA信息和新的化石证据
fleshing out many of these empty areas of that tree,
能将这张图谱上许多空着的区域填充起来
and helping to unravel the full story of our ancestry.
帮助揭开人类祖先的全部历史

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视频概述

随着科学技术的进步,新的证据推翻了人们普遍认为的人类演化历史。我们到底是怎么来的呢?快来看一看吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaC-fzYdHi4

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