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人类的噪音如何影响海洋环境 – 译学馆
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人类的噪音如何影响海洋环境

How human noise affects ocean habitats | Kate Stafford

1956年 雅克·库斯托的一部纪录片
In 1956, a documentary by Jacques Cousteau won
获得了金棕榈奖和奥斯卡奖
both the Palme d’Or and an Oscar award.
这部影片被称为《Le Monde Du Silence》或
This film was called, “Le Monde Du Silence,”
《寂静的世界》
or, “The Silent World.”
这个片名表明水下世界是个寂静的世界
The premise of the title was that the underwater world was a quiet world.
60年后 我们终于知道
We now know, 60 years later,
水下世界一点都不安静
that the underwater world is anything but silent.
虽然在水面上听不到水下的声音
Although the sounds are inaudible above water
不过这也取决于你所在的位置和时间其实
depending on where you are and the time of year,
水下世界可以像丛林和雨林一样嘈杂
the underwater soundscape can be as noisy as any jungle or rainforest.
像鼓虾一样的无脊椎动物、鱼和海洋哺乳动物
Invertebrates like snapping shrimp, fish and marine mammals
都会产生声音
all use sound.
它们用声音来了解它们的栖息地
They use sound to study their habitat,
来向对方传递信息来
to keep in communication with each other,
导航
to navigate,
来探测捕食者和猎物
to detect predators and prey.
它们还运用声音来了解它们的环境
They also use sound by listening to know something about their environment.
举个例子
Take, for an example, the Arctic.
北极它被看作是一个辽阔的不适合居住的地方
It’s considered a vast, inhospitable place,
有的时候它被描述成沙漠
sometimes described as a desert,
因为它太寒冷和太遥远了
because it is so cold and so remote
并且常年被冰覆盖
and ice-covered for much of the year.
尽管这样
And despite this,
在地球上 我最愿意呆在北极
there is no place on Earth that I would rather be than the Arctic,
特别是当白天变长 春天到来的时候
especially as days lengthen and spring comes.
对我来说 北极真正体现了
To me, the Arctic really embodies this disconnect
水面上所见和水面下所发生的截然不同
between what we see on the surface and what’s going on underwater.
你在水面上眺望冰盖 一片白色和蓝色
You can look out across the ice — all white and blue and cold —
十分寒冷什么都看不到
and see nothing.
但是如果你能听到水下对的声音
But if you could hear underwater,
你先会惊奇
the sounds you would hear would at first amaze
然后会开心
and then delight you.
当你的眼睛只看到连绵几千米的冰雪
And while your eyes are seeing nothing for kilometers but ice,
你的耳朵却在告诉你水底有弓头鲸和白鲸
your ears are telling you that out there are bowhead and beluga whales,
海象和髯海豹
walrus and bearded seals.
冰也会产生声音当温度
The ice, too, makes sounds.
、洋流或者风改变的时候 它们发生碰撞和摩擦
It screeches and cracks and pops and groans,
产生嘎吱、
as it collides and rubs when temperature or currents or winds change.
爆裂等声音还有 在严冬季节全冰覆盖下
And under 100 percent sea ice in the dead of winter,
弓头鲸在唱歌
bowhead whales are singing.
超乎我们的想象
And you would never expect that,
我们人类
because we humans,
更多的是视觉动物
we tend to be very visual animals.
对我们的大多数来说(并不是所有人)
For most of us, but not all,
我们的视觉指引我们的方向
our sense of sight is how we navigate our world.
然而对于住在海底的海洋哺乳动物
For marine mammals that live underwater,
因为水下化学信号和光的传播都非常弱
where chemical cues and light transmit poorly,
声音就是它们的向导
sound is the sense by which they see.
而且声音在水下可以很好地传播
And sound transmits very well underwater,
比在空气中要好很多
much better than it does in air,
所以信号能传播到很远的距离在北极
so signals can be heard over great distances.
这至关重要
In the Arctic, this is especially important,
不仅因为北极的 哺乳动物们需要听到同伴的声音
because not only do Arctic marine mammals have to hear each other,
它们还需要通过聆听周围的环境
but they also have to listen for cues in the environment
来探测前方是厚冰层还是开放的水域记住
that might indicate heavy ice ahead or open water.
虽然它们大多数时间都住在水下
Remember, although they spend most of their lives underwater,
但它们是哺乳动物
they are mammals,
所以它们需要到水面呼吸
and so they have to surface to breathe.
所以它们需要聆听薄冰或无冰的位置
So they might listen for thin ice or no ice,
或者聆听附近冰层的回声
or listen for echoes off nearby ice.
北极的海洋哺乳动物住在一个丰富多样的水下声景中在
Arctic marine mammals live in a rich and varied underwater soundscape.
春天
In the spring,
是一片混杂的声音
it can be a cacophony of sound.
(海洋哺乳动物的声音)
(Marine mammal sounds)
但是当水结成冰
But when the ice is frozen solid,
并且没有剧烈的气温变化或者洋流变化时
and there are no big temperature shifts or current changes,
北极水下的环境声级
the underwater Arctic has some of the lowest ambient noise levels
是全世界海洋中最低的
of the world’s oceans.
但是这种状况正在改变
But this is changing.
主要是因为季节性浮冰的减少
This is primarily due to a decrease in seasonal sea ice,
人类温室气体排放的直接导致了这种减少
which is a direct result of human greenhouse gas emissions.
伴随着气候变化
We are, in effect, with climate change,
事实上我们正在我们的星球 实施一场完全无法控制的实验
conducting a completely uncontrolled experiment with our planet.
在过去的30年中
Over the past 30 years,
北极的季节性浮冰到处都在减少
areas of the Arctic have seen decreases in seasonal sea ice
减少时间从六周到四个月不等
from anywhere from six weeks to four months.
这种减少某种程度上
This decrease in sea ice is sometimes referred to as an increase
也就是非冰期的增加
in the open water season.
也意味着北极可行船的时间变长了
That is the time of year when the Arctic is navigable to vessels.
而且不仅冰的覆盖区减小了
And not only is the extent of ice changing,
冰龄和冰宽也改变了
but the age and the width of ice is, too.
你可能听说过
Now, you may well have heard
季节性浮冰的减少造成了
that a decrease in seasonal sea ice is causing a loss of habitat
使得依赖于冰的动物丧失了栖息地
for animals that rely on sea ice,
比如海狗、海狮和北极熊
such as ice seals, or walrus, or polar bears.
季节性浮冰的减少还 增加了沿岸岸村庄的水土流失
Decreasing sea ice is also causing increased erosion along coastal villages,
海鸟和哺乳动物的猎物也变少了
and changing prey availability for marine birds and mammals.
气候变化和浮冰的减少
Climate change and decreases in sea ice
也改变了北极的水下声景
are also altering the underwater soundscape of the Arctic.
声景是什么意思?
What do I mean by soundscape?
我们这些靠聆听海洋为生的人
Those of us who eavesdrop on the oceans for a living
用一种叫做“水听器”的器械
use instruments called hydrophones,
——水底的麦克风
which are underwater microphones,
来记录周围的噪音
and we record ambient noise —
——围绕着我们的噪音
the noise all around us.
声景描述了这个噪音场
And the soundscape describes the different contributors
的不同产生来源
to this noise field.
我们用水听器听到的声音
What we are hearing on our hydrophones
反映了气候的变迁
are the very real sounds of climate change.
我们聆听到的声音来自三方:
We are hearing these changes from three fronts:
空气水
from the air,
和陆地
from the water
第一
and from land.
空气
First: air.
水面上的风创造了浪
Wind on water creates waves.
这些浪制造泡泡
These waves make bubbles;
泡泡会破裂
the bubbles break,
当它们破裂的时候
and when they do,
它们会发出声音
they make noise.
这声音像是背景中的嘶嘶声和白噪音
And this noise is like a hiss or a static in the background.
在被冰雪覆盖的北极
In the Arctic, when it’s ice-covered,
大多数风声无法穿透到水下
most of the noise from wind doesn’t make it into the water column,
因为冰是大气和水之间的缓冲层
because the ice acts as a buffer between the atmosphere and the water.
这是造成
This is one of the reasons
北极冰面下噪音低的原因之一
that the Arctic can have very low ambient noise levels.
但是随着季节性浮冰的减少
But with decreases in seasonal sea ice,
不仅北极水面下能听到这种海浪声了
not only is the Arctic now open to this wave noise,
而且北极的风暴数量和强度
but the number of storms and the intensity of storms in the Arctic
也在增加
has been increasing.
这些都使得原本安静的海洋变得嘈杂第二
All of this is raising noise levels in a previously quiet ocean.

Second: water.
随着季节性浮冰的减少
With less seasonal sea ice,
亚北极的物种在向北迁徙
subarctic species are moving north,
迁徙到新形成的没有结冰的栖息地现在
and taking advantage of the new habitat that is created by more open water.
住在北极的鲸鱼 像这个弓头鲸
Now, Arctic whales, like this bowhead,
它们并没有背鳍
they have no dorsal fin,
因为它们已进化并适应了在被冰覆盖的水域里游泳和生活
because they have evolved to live and swim in ice-covered waters,
背后长东西不利于
and having something sticking off of your back is not very conducive
在冰中移动
to migrating through ice,
并且事实上 可能无法在冰区生活
and may, in fact, be excluding animals from the ice.
但是现在
But now, everywhere we’ve listened,
我们在各地都有听到长须鲸、
we’re hearing the sounds of fin whales and humpback whales
座头鲸和虎鲸的声音
and killer whales,
越来越向北
further and further north,
季节越来越晚本质上
and later and later in the season.
我们听到的是
We are hearing, in essence,
亚北极物种对北极的入侵
an invasion of the Arctic by subarctic species.
而且我们不知道这意味这什么
And we don’t know what this means.
北极和亚北极动物会争夺食物吗?
Will there be competition for food between Arctic and subarctic animals?
这些亚北极物种会把疾病和寄生虫带到北极吗?
Might these subarctic species introduce diseases or parasites into the Arctic?
还有它们产生的声音
And what are the new sounds that they are producing
会对水底的声景产生什么样的的影响呢?
doing to the soundscape underwater?
第三
And third: land.
陆地我指的陆地
And by land …
其实是人类
I mean people.
更多的非结冰水域意味着 人类可以更多地利用北极
More open water means increased human use of the Arctic.
就在上个夏天
Just this past summer,
一艘巨大邮轮成功通过了西北航道
a massive cruise ship made its way through the Northwest Passage —
这曾是一条欧洲和太平洋之间的神秘航道
the once-mythical route between Europe and the Pacific.
浮冰的减少让人类能够更多地利用北极
Decreases in sea ice have allowed humans to occupy the Arctic more often.
这增加了石油和天然气的探索和开采
It has allowed increases in oil and gas exploration and extraction,
增加了商业货物运输的可行性
the potential for commercial shipping,
以及增加了旅游活动
as well as increased tourism.
我们现在发现船的噪音会提高鲸鱼的压力荷尔蒙
And we now know that ship noise increases levels of stress hormones in whales
而且能够扰乱它们的觅食行为气枪
and can disrupt feeding behavior.
每10到20秒
Air guns, which produce loud, low-frequency “whoomps”
产生响亮和低频声响
every 10 to 20 seconds,
改变了鲸鱼游泳和发声的习惯
changed the swimming and vocal behavior of whales.
所有的这些声源减少了
And all of these sound sources are decreasing the acoustic space
北极海洋哺乳动物交流的声音空间现在
over which Arctic marine mammals can communicate.
在每年的某一段时间
Now, Arctic marine mammals are used to very high levels of noise
北极海洋哺乳动物习惯于非常多的噪音
at certain times of the year.
但是这是由其他动物或者浮冰产生的
But this is primarily from other animals or from sea ice,
这些声音是它们进化过程中适应的
and these are the sounds with which they’ve evolved,
而且这些声音对它们的生存很重要
and these are sounds that are vital to their very survival.
而这些新的声音响亮而且陌生
These new sounds are loud and they’re alien.
它们可能会以我们已知或未知的方式
They might impact the environment in ways that we think we understand,
影响环境记住
but also in ways that we don’t.
声音是这些动物最重要的感知方式
Remember, sound is the most important sense for these animals.
不仅北极栖息地的样貌正在飞速改变
And not only is the physical habitat of the Arctic changing rapidly,
栖息地的声境也在改变
but the acoustic habitat is, too.
就好像我们把这些动物从安静的郊区
It’s as if we’ve plucked these animals up from the quiet countryside
放到了交通拥堵时候的大城市中央
and dropped them into a big city in the middle of rush hour.
它们无法逃脱所以
And they can’t escape it.
我们能做什么?
So what can we do now?
我们无法减少风速
We can’t decrease wind speeds
或者阻止亚北极动物向北迁徙
or keep subarctic animals from migrating north,
但是我们可以采用局部解决方案
but we can work on local solutions
来减少人为制造的水下噪音
to reducing human-caused underwater noise.
解决方式之一是
One of these solutions is to slow down ships
放慢穿越北极的船速
that traverse the Arctic,
因为船速越慢船的声音越小
because a slower ship is a quieter ship.
我们可以在生物交配、觅食和迁徙的重要季节和地区
We can restrict access in seasons and regions
限制人类的进入
that are important for mating or feeding or migrating.
我们可以研究如何让船更安静
We can get smarter about quieting ships
找到更好的探索海底的方式
and find better ways to explore the ocean bottom.
好消息是
And the good news is,
现在已经有人在做这些事情了
there are people working on this right now.
但是最终
But ultimately,
我们人类还要努力
we humans have to do the hard work
逆转或者至少减慢
of reversing or at the very least decelerating
人为造成的大气变化所以
human-caused atmospheric changes.
让我们回到寂静的水下世界这个说法
So, let’s return to this idea of a silent world underwater.
极有可能
It’s entirely possible
许多现在在北极游泳的鲸鱼
that many of the whales swimming in the Arctic today,
特别是像弓头鲸这样的长生物种
especially long-lived species like the bowhead whale
——因纽特人说它们的生命有可能是人类的两倍
that the Inuits say can live two human lives —
——有可能在1956年它们就已经活着了
it’s possible that these whales were alive in 1956,
即在雅克·库斯托制作这部电影的时候
when Jacques Cousteau made his film.
回想起来
And in retrospect,
想想我们现在在海洋中制造的噪音
considering all the noise we are creating in the oceans today,
也许它当时真的是一个“寂静的世界”
perhaps it really was “The Silent World.”
谢谢
Thank you.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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