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习惯是怎样形成的?

How Habits are Formed

嘿聪明人 我是Joe
Hey smart people, Joe here.
如果我跟你说
What if I told you
你今早有薄荷味的清新口气是因为
that the reason you had minty-fresh breath this morning was because
100年前有个叫作Claude.C.Hopkins的广告商
100 years ago an advertiser named Claude C. Hopkins
他在卖牙膏时碰到了难题
was having trouble selling a brand of toothpaste?
他需要让人们相信刷牙应该成为日常习惯
He needed to convince people that brushing their teeth should be a daily routine,
在那时 很多人并不是这么想的
and back then, it wasn’t for most people.
最终他让
In the end he was able to get
一半的美国人养成这个习惯并且
half the American public to pick up a new behavior
每天重复 同时为他的牙膏付钱
and repeat it every single day, and pay money for his toothpaste.
他怎么做到的?
How did he do it?
通过运用神经科学 解码习惯的神奇力量
By tapping into neuroscience and decoding the awesome power of habits.
习惯
Habits.
我们都有
We’ve all got them.
你可能会想起你的一些习惯
You can probably think of a few of your own.
当我坐着不动的时候 我似乎总是用脚拍地
I always seem to tap my feet when I’m trying to sit still.
而我全神贯注看书或者看电影时
And I find myself biting my nails whenever
我会发现我在啃指甲
I’m focused on reading or watching a movie.
我并非有意识地想做这些事
I don’t consciously think about doing these things.
而是因为我经常这样做 以至于它们已经成为了习惯
That’s because I’ve done them so often that they’ve become a habit.
我们知道习惯就是一些我们会不由自主做的事
We know habits as things we do automatically,
我们潜意识里的任务 像走路 或是击掌
tasks we do subconsciously, like walking or high fiving.
还有很多很多学术上可以称为习惯的事
And there’s a ton of things that technically count as habits,
它们或好或坏
and they can be good or bad.
那么我们为什么会养成习惯呢?
So why do we form habits?
我们又是怎样养成一个新习惯 或者忘却一个旧的呢?
And how do we learn new ones, or un-learn old ones?
如果你曾走同样的路上学或是去上班
If you’ve ever taken the same path to school or work,
那么你很有可能把那条路 刻在脑子里了
then you likely have that pathway burned into your brain.
你可能走路的时侯都不用很专心
You can probably walk it without really paying attention.
习惯就是用与之相似的方式建立起来的
Habits are built in a similar way.
当你重复一项行为时 会建立新的神经通路
New neural pathways are formed when you repeat a behavior.
这个脑回路走的越多
And the more a brain circuit fires,
我们大脑无意识行动越容易
the easier it becomes for our brain to do whatever that
不论那个回路控制的什么
circuit controls, without conscious thought.
想想你是怎样学骑自行车的
Think back to how you learned to ride a bike.
刚开始的时候 骑自行车很难
At first, riding a bike is tough.
你必须同时学会蹬车
You’ve got to learn how to
平衡 拐弯 所有这些
pedal and balance and turn all at the same time.
你不得不有意识地想每一个动作
You have to consciously think about each action.
这些发生在你大脑一个叫前额皮质的地方
This happens in an area of your brain called the prefrontal cortex,
前额皮质参与复杂的思考
the part associated with complex thought.
但最终 在你骑得足够多之后
But eventually, after you ride enough,
你不再需要有意识去想
you no longer have to consciously think about
每一个单独动作
each individual action.
骑自行车已经成为一个习惯
Riding a bike has become a habit,
现在由大脑不同的区域来控制它
and now it’s controlled by different parts of your brain.
其中一个跟习惯行为有关的是纹状体
One area involved in habitual behavior is the striatum,
它实际上是释放化学物质的
which actually releases chemicals
以此抑制大脑中的复杂思考区域
that inhibit the complex thinking part of your brain for that task.
这是你的大脑在高效运转
This is your brain being efficient.
通过降低大脑对骑自行车的思考需求
By turning down your brain’s thinking requirements
就可以随意思考其他事了
for bike riding, it’s free to think other things,
比如“冰屋是怎样让你感到暖和的?”
like ” how exactly do igloos keepyou warm?”
让我们回到Claude Hopkins和他的牙膏计划中去
Let’s go back to Claude Hopkins and his toothpaste scheme.
他意识到习惯有三个关键成分
Claude realized habits have three key ingredients.
提示 行为和奖励
A cue, a behavior, and a reward.
提示触发特定行为
A cue is something that triggers a behavior,
比如闹钟一响 你就重重地按下
like how the alarm clock triggers you punching
那个贪睡按钮 这样你就能获得一个
the snooze button, and this is followed by the reward –
9分钟的额外美妙睡眠的奖励
9 sweet extra minutes of sleep
Claude让人们想起清晨自己牙上黏黏的东西
Claude got people thinking about that slimy film on your teeth in the morning,
多亏了晚上侵略你口腔的细菌
Thanks to bacteria that colonize your mouth overnight.
这个黏黏的东西就是触发你刷牙行为的提示
The sticky film is the cue that triggers brushing behavior.
奖励是什么呢?
What was the reward?
Claude让人们相信这种黏黏的东西会让他们的微笑看起来恶心
Claude convinced people this film would make their smile look ugly
一个更美的微笑就是奖励
and a prettier smile was the reward for brushing.
他懂得通过正确的提示和奖励
Claude understood that with the right cue and the right reward,
就能诱使人们做任何你想让别人做的事
you could entice people to do just about whatever behavior you wanted.
但他不知道的是奖励一个行为实际上会产生一种渴望
But what he didn’t know was that rewarding a behavior can actually create a craving,
这就让习惯变得坚不可摧
and this is what makes habits so strong.
科学家现在知道这种在大脑里的特殊神经细胞可以引发刺激并释放化学物质作为激励
Scientists now know that special neurons in the brain can fire and give us chemical rewards.
但不可思议的是一旦
But what’s weird is that once a habit
一个习惯和奖励在我们的大脑里联系起来
and a reward are tied together in our brain,
那么在你做那事之前 奖励神经细胞就开始工作了
those reward neurons start firing even before you do the behavior.
这就造成了渴望
This is what causes craving,
这也是为什么你去看电影时想要爆米花
and it’s why you want popcorn when you go to the movies,
为什么你看到其他人做同样的事的时候 会自己养成坏习惯
why you pick up your bad habits when you see other people doing them,
以及为什么习惯是如此的难以改掉
and why habits are so hard to break.
Claude知道更美好的微笑是让人们刷牙的奖励
Claude knew a prettier smile would be a reward that would make people brush,
但他无法预料到的是 久而久之
but he didn’t anticipate that over time people would
人们会下意识开始渴望牙膏留在他们嘴里的薄荷刺激
subconsciously start craving the minty tingle that Pepsodent left in their mouths.
实际上人类的大脑开始渴望刷牙
People’s brains actually started to crave toothbrushing.
那么你怎样训练你自己去养成一个新的习惯 比如每天吃一个苹果
So how can you train yourself to pick up a new habit, like eating an apple a day.
还有 如果你有个坏习惯 你能改掉它吗
And if you’ve got a bad habit, can you break it,
还是永远深受其害?
or are you stuck with it forever?
科学家过去常常认为一旦我们成年 大脑就不再改变
Scientists used to think that our brains didn’t change all that much once we reached adulthood,
像凝固的混凝土一样
like concrete once it’s solidified.
但事实证明大脑更像是黏土
But it turns out your brain is much more like clay –
是种超级灵活的器官
it’s a super flexible organ.
在你过的每一天里 大脑里的化学物质
The chemistry of your brain is constantly changing
一直在变 响应每一件事——从学习到行走到饥饿
as you go about your day, in response to everything from learning to moving to hunger.
这些化学物质转瞬即逝 但长此以往
These chemical releases are short lived, but over time,
如果相同的行为一直重复进行
if the same behaviors are repeated,
大脑的物理结构就变了
the physical structure of the brain is actually changed.
你创造了新的神经通路
You create new neural pathways.
并且因为神经网络改变了
And because the neural network has changed,
信息流动的方式也随之改变
so does the way the information flows.
当一个行为重复的足够多的时候 习惯就建立起来了
When a behavior is repeated often enough, a habit is formed.
有一个著名的理论就是你需要一万个小时来习得一个新技能
There’s a famous idea that a new skill is learned by putting in 10,000 hours of work,
但并不是那么简单
but it’s not that simple.
不同任务与不同的人会使需要的时长截然不同
The amount of time differs hugely between tasks and between people.
唯一确定的就是 就形成习惯来说
What’s for sure is that when it comes to making a habit,
不管是学吉他还是冥想 重复是无可替代的
whether it’s learning guitar or meditation, there’s simply no substitute for repetition.
坏习惯之所以这么难丢掉
The reason bad habits are so hard to break is
就是因为你在大脑里一点一点编织神经网络
because you have literally woven new neural networks into your brain.
那可不会一夜消失
That doesn’t go away overnight.
所以让自己放松一下
So give yourself a break.
如果你尝试改变一个习惯
And if you’re trying to change a habit,
最好尝试用另一个新的行为代替那个坏的行为
know that it’s usually best to try and replace bad behavior with a new behavior
而不是去整个消除这一模式
instead of just trying to erase the pattern altogether.
好消息是现在你知道 你有能力改变你的大脑了
The good thing is that now you know you have the power to change your brain.
它就跟刷牙一样简单
It’s as easy as brushing your teeth.
如果你还没有让它成为习惯——保持好奇
And if you haven’t already made it a habit – Stay Curious.

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视频概述

人们刷牙的习惯是怎样形成的?好习惯和坏习惯又该怎么养成和丢弃?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

珈杨

审核员

审核员A

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN1aRN5bQQ0

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