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月球上种花种草可行吗?

How Growing Plants is Different on the Moon | WIRED

According to one estimate,
据估计
sending one kilogram of anything to the moon on a spacecraft
用太空船运送一千克物品到月球
would cost 15000 dollars,
需花费一万五千美元
a consideration weighing on NASA
这笔花销加重了美国航天局的负担
as they ramp up the Artemis program,
因为 在完成阿波罗计划半个世纪后
half a century after the Apollo missions.
他们加快了实施阿尔忒弥斯计划的步伐
Having a permanent base on the moon will be important
为了实现下一次飞跃
in order to take that next leap, and go into,
进入太空探索不同的地方
and explore different locations in space.
在月球建立一个永久基地将会十分重要
And growing plants using water and soil
利用月球上发现的
we find on the moon will be crucial
水和土壤种植植物
for our ability to sustain longer duration stays there.
对于延长人类在月球上的停留时间至关重要
We will live off the land
我们将依靠月球的土地生活
instead of constantly having new food sent up.
而不是持续送食物上去
So when space biologists recently grew plants in actual moon soil,
最近 空间生物学家用月壤培育出了植物
it was a game changer.
这带来了颠覆性的变化
Let’s find out how they did it.
我们来看看他们是如何做到的
如何在月球种植植物
All plants need light, air, water, a source of nutrition,
植物生长都需要光 空气 水 营养源
and optimal temperature.
以及最适宜的温度
But growing plants is different in space.
但在太空种植是截然不同的
It’s a hostile environment.
月球环境恶劣
You don’t have an atmosphere.
没有大气层
You don’t have the elements that help us,
没有利于人类和动植物
and plants, and animals thrive.
健康生长的各种元素
No oxygen, no CO2,
没有氧气 没有二氧化碳
and until some years ago, we thought no water.
几年前 我们还以为没有水
We now know that there is water on the moon.
现在我们知道月球上是有水的
Part of the Artemis program
部分阿尔忒弥斯计划
will see how much water we can mine to grow plants.
将会研究能开采多少水用于种植
There are big temperature fluxes.
月球上昼夜温差很大
Between a lunar day and a lunar night,
白天和晚上的温差
there could be almost a 300 degree Celsius swing in temperatures.
可达300摄氏度左右
There’s no atmosphere.
没有大气层
And also there’s no protective magnetic shell around the moon.
周围也没有保护性的磁场
The way we have a protective magnetic shell
不像地球周围有保护性磁场
around Earth, called the Van Allen belt.
即范艾伦辐射带
And so what happens is ionizing particles
情况是这样的 来源于太阳风
that are coming from solar wind, or from galactic cosmic radiation,
或者银河宇宙辐射的高能粒子
bombard the surface of the moon.
冲击月球表面
There are also micrometeorites that are bombarding the surface.
也有小陨石撞击月球表面
That is what is called space weathering.
这就是所谓的空间风化
Not to be confused with the type of weather
不要和地球上的风化
or erosion we have on Earth.
或者侵蚀混淆
We have rivers, and we have wind, and these cause erosion.
地球上的河流和风都会造成侵蚀
And it will often make those jagged rocks
通常侵蚀会让棱角分明的岩石更平缓
much more gentle, they’ll round off the edges.
让岩石边缘更圆润
Whereas we don’t have the benefit
而月球表面遭受的侵蚀
of that kind of erosion on the surface of the moon.
就没那么好了
This constant bombardment with cosmic rays
宇宙射线的持续冲击
and pelting with space rocks
和太空岩石的撞击
basically makes the moon soil toxic to plants.
基本上导致月球土壤对植物有毒
Even though the composition of the actual regolith
即便月球上的浮土含有很多
has many of the same elements that we have on Earth.
与地球上的土一样的成分
It’s rich in iron, and silicon, and potassium, and manganese and magnesium.
都富含铁 硅 钾 锰和镁等矿物质
But how it reacts to biological materials can be different.
但它对生物材料的反应可能不同
Because of these impacts, rock particles can reform
受撞击影响 岩石颗粒可以重组
into what is called agglutinates,
形成所谓的凝集素
and they can trap in them some of these metals,
它们可以捕获其中的一些金属
which can in fact be harmful to plants.
这些金属事实上可能对植物有害
It’s so different. It’s not even called soil.
月壤截然不同 甚至称不上是土壤
It’s called regolith, because technically
它叫风化浮土 因为专业地讲
soil has beneficial organic material
土壤含有有益的有机质
like microbes, insects, or decaying plants.
如微生物 昆虫或腐烂的植物
Scientists weren’t even sure if moon soil could sustain plants at all.
科学家甚至不确定月壤能否维持植物生长
That’s what makes the recent study
这就是为什么最近这项
using actual moon regolith brought back by astronauts
采用宇航员带回的月球浮土进行的研究
so groundbreaking.
具有如此开创性的意义
This study from the University of Florida
这项来自佛罗里达大学的研究
tested the growth of plants in three different soils
检测了从阿波罗11 12和17号采集的
collected from Apollo 11, 12 and 17.
三种不同土壤中植物的生长情况
Half century ago, astronauts landed on different parts of the moon,
半世纪前 宇航员在月球的不同表面着陆
where they collected moon regolith.
收集月球风化浮土
For example, Apollo 11 landed and explored a spot
例如 阿波罗11号着陆并探索了一个
where the dirt was more space weathered.
泥土受空间风化影响更大的地方
#I was strolling on the moon one day#
#有一天我在月球漫步#
The scientists took this moon soil,
科学家拿出在约翰逊航天中心
which was sealed for decades at Johnson Space Center,
封存了数十年的月壤
placed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds in tiny growth wells
在小小的生长井里放入拟南芥种子
filled with less than one gram of Apollo moon soil,
生长井装满了不到一克的月壤
nutrients, and water, and waited.
营养物质和水 然后等待
Two days later, they found that all of these
两天后 他们发现所有
Arabidopsis plants was sprouting.
拟南芥都发芽了
With time, as the plants grow more and more,
随着时间的推移 植物越长越大
the plants are more stunted.
也越来越发育不良
The leaves are smaller.
叶子变小了
And there’s this reddish pigmentation.
叶子上还有红色色素沉着
And they looked at the RNA profile
他们通过基因表达
of these cells by gene expression.
观察这些细胞的RNA
They found that those also showed a signature of stress.
发现这些RNA也有病变的迹象
And so one, yes, the plants can grow in the regolith.
因此 首先 植物确实可以在浮土中生长
And two, the regolith does cause some stress in the plant.
其次 风化浮土确实导致植物病变
Not surprisingly, the plants grown
毫无疑问 生长在更古老
in the older more space weathered Apollo 11 regolith
空间风化更严重的阿波罗11号浮土中的植物
were the most stressed.
病变最严重
So those soils then caused more toxicity on the plant,
那些土壤对植物造成了更大的毒害
those visible signs of stress.
肉眼可见的病变迹象
Further study will be needed to determine why exactly that’s the case,
需要进一步研究才能确定究竟为什么会这样
or whether introducing microbes into the soil,
以及在土壤中加入微生物
or growing more drought resistant plants,
或者种植更多的抗旱植物
or plants with higher nutritional content would work.
或营养含量更高的植物是否有效
But one thing astronauts have figured out
但宇航员弄明白了一件事
is the water and sunlight situation in space.
那就是太空中的水和阳光的状况
Starting from Mir Space Station,
从苏联和平号空间站
the space shuttle years, the International Space Station,
到航天飞机时代 再到国际空间站
we have managed to grow plants in space.
我们设法在太空中种植植物
What you’re seeing here is the veggie unit,
你现在看到的是素食单元
the advanced plant habitat on the International Space Station.
国际空间站的高级植物栖息地
Today, I’m gonna show you how we water the garden here in space.
现在我将为你展示在太空如何为花园浇水
Watering a plant, which we can do so easily
在地球上给植物浇水
on the surface of the Earth,
轻而易举
is much more challenging in space.
在太空则难得多
On Earth you have rain, comes down.
在地球上会下雨
Gravity then makes the water flow into the ground.
然后重力会使雨水流入地下
The International Space Station
而国际空间站
has an environment of microgravity.
处于微重力状态
We have to use a bag with water in it and a syringe.
必须用装有水的袋子和注射器浇水
You don’t want to water too much
不能浇太多水
because you don’t want that water to choke the plants
因为水太多会导致植物窒息
from accessing the oxygen that it needs for respiration
从而呼吸不到所需的氧气
On the moon you have 1/6 the gravity you have on Earth.
月球上的重力是地球上的六分之一
So that’s more gravity helping you than on the ISS.
比国际空间站的重力大 更有帮助
But, the sunlight is trickier on the lunar surface,
但月球表面的阳光才是更棘手的问题
with two weeks of darkness
由于月球自转
followed by two weeks of light, due to the moon’s rotation.
昼夜皆持续两个星期
We’re not getting those 12 hours
月球不是十二小时昼
of daylight and 12 hours of night.
十二小时夜
So we have to create that artificially.
因此必须人工创造这个条件
And we can do that with LED lights,
用LED灯可以办到
which can give you very specific wavelengths of light.
LED灯可以提供特定的光波长
And you can mix them to make white light
通过混合可以制作出白光
so it looks like sunlight.
看起来和太阳光一样
Just a three day trip away,
这不过是三天的短期旅行
the moon is a small step
月球只是一小步
that will lead to the giant leap to Mars,
这一小步会促成登陆火星的一大步
which involves a very long journey.
这会是一次漫长的旅程
So there are several reasons
因此在太空种植
why growing our own food in space is key.
自己的粮食如此关键的原因有几个
Currently on the International Space Station
目前在国际空间站
we have a lot of packaged foods, which are very useful.
有很多实用的包装食品
But just as you can imagine in your own pantry,
但你看看自家的食品储藏柜就能想到
no matter how carefully
无论包装得多么仔细
and how well we preserve it and package it,
保存得多好
eventually the nutritional components degrade.
营养成分最终都会减少
If for some reason your supplies haven’t come on time,
如果由于某些原因 补给未能及时送到
you have a plan B.
还有一个备用的B计划
Anyone who’s seen the movie “The Martian” would agree.
看过《火星救援》的人都会同意这一点
The fertilizer that he uses in the movie
我们可能不会用电影中主人公
may not be the fertilizer that we will use.
所用的那种肥料
While you can use astronaut poop,
但宇航员的排泄物是可以用的
it may not be the most controlled fashion.
不过可能不是最可控的方式
NASA prefers powdered fertilizer
国家航天局更喜欢使用粉末状的
that can be reconstituted with water.
能够遇水化开的肥料
So what will a permanent moon habitat
那么 多年后
with self sustaining plant food sources
一个可以自供食物的永久月球基地
look like years from now?
会是什么样的呢?
There are some components that I can tell you
我可以透露部分
that will very likely be a part of these habitats,
可能组成基地的建筑结构
that will help us do sustained stays
这些结构会帮助我们
on the surface of the moon,
在月球表面
and then in future for Mars.
以及未来在火星上长久停留
One of them is the fact that we’re not going to be
其中之一是我们不会像在地球一样
growing plants in large farms like we do on Earth.
建大农场来种植作物
We have to have these controlled environments
我们需要创建受控生态环境
where we’re going to grow them.
在这种环境下种植植物
It’s funny to say, but space is limiting in space.
说起来很有趣 空间的空间有限
We have to make every square inch
我们要充分利用
of space that we use to grow plants count.
每一寸用以种植的空间
One point of reference are the habitats on the South Pole
可供参考的是南极的基地
where researchers currently spend months in bubbles
那儿的研究员目前花了数月研究泡沫
that protect them from the harsh environment outside.
这种泡沫能够保护他们不受户外严寒侵袭
What’s interesting is that these folk love
有趣的是 这些研究员喜欢
hanging out and spending time in the greenhouse.
花时间泡在温室
One cannot underestimate the value
当你在离地球千里之外的地方探险时
of having that greenery around you
不能低估
as you venture far away from the surface of the Earth.
身边有绿色植物的好处
We will use probably a combination of hydroponics
我们可能会结合使用
as well as using lunar regolith.
培养液和月球风化浮土
Once we have figured out with research
一旦我们研究出
how to mitigate the toxic effects,
减轻毒效的方法
we will live off the land
我们会以土地为生
and utilize the soil-like material on the surface of the moon
利用月球表面类似于土壤的物质
to help us grow plants the way we grow them on Earth.
帮助我们用地球上的方式种植植物
[dynamic music]
[充满活力的音乐]
This idea of this one small step
这个想法只是一小步
then can lead to this giant leap for humankind.
但有朝一日会促成人类的一大步
My personal hope is that Artemis will be
我个人的愿望是阿尔忒弥斯计划能成为
to this and future generations
这一代和下一代年轻人心目中
what Apollo was in the ’50s, 60’s, and 70’s
五六七十年代的阿波罗计划
in terms of getting the younger folk excited
等到下一代年轻人加入研究的时候
about all the tools, the capabilities,
他们能为我们的工具 科研能力兴奋
all of these skills that we’re going to need to thrive
为所有在这样的环境下追求蒸蒸日上
in these environments as our next leap into exploration.
所需要的科研技术兴奋
[dynamic music]
[充满活力的音乐]

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视频概述

在月球上种植植物与在地球上有何不同?在月球上种植会遇到哪些难题?我们一起来看看吧~

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

枇杷弹琵琶

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBEZW4GAia4

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