谷歌是如何运作的？作者：Eric Schmidt和Jonathan Rosenberg
How Google Works by Eric Schmidt and Jonathan Rosenberg
Eric Schmidt曾在谷歌担任CEO十年 他在2001年开始担任CEO
Eric Schmidt was the CEO of Google for ten years. He became the CEO in 2001. At that
point it was a successful three-year-old internet start-up, but was already preparing to compete
with the giant Microsoft. Google was different to other places Schmidt
即便作为CEO 他也不得不和其他员工共用办公室 公司在扩大规模
had worked. Even as CEO he had to share his office. The company was growing in size and
并且在2002年的时候 Jonathan Rosenberg以产品管理主管的身份加入
in 2002 Jonathan Rosenberg joined as Head of Products.
The company’s early principles consisted of focusing on the user, hiring as many great
software engineers as they could and give those engineers freedom. Google was managed
with informal meetings of small engineering teams.
In 2003 Schmidt and Rosenberg were charged with creating a business plan to take on Microsoft.
To carry it out involved learning a new way of managing these smart creatives who are
not shackled by organisation structures and defined rules. They’ve been learning and
自从那时 他们就学习并记录了这些新的管理方法 并且这本书让我们了解到
documenting these new management methods ever since and this book gives us an insight into
how Google works, providing a series of steps in the development of the company.
Culture When starting a company, culture is an important
consideration. Smart creatives need to care about where they work to produce their best
work. The culture should be defined by the founders and the founding team. In Google’s
case, the culture of the company is the same now as it was back then.
The office layout at Google is not typical. It is deliberately crowded to encourage interaction
and reduce envy of other colleagues’ facilities. Employees are not segregated in the office
by what they do; product managers sit with engineers to increase integration. The office
is often messy (a by-product of innovation) but the engineers are given access to as much
computing power as possible and Google’s offices are packed with amenities, again promoting
more employee interaction and therefore more chance of colleagues putting their heads together
and coming up with the next billion dollar idea.
The organisational structure is relatively flat. Each manager must have at least seven
direct reports. This helps the smart creatives get stuff done and provides them with better
access to the people that make decisions. Small teams working on breakthroughs are encouraged.
亚马逊的CEO Jeff Bezos曾经提出两个披萨原则是说一个团队的人数应该少到
Jeff Bezos of Amazon had a “two pizza team” rule, where the team should be small enough
两个披萨饼就够他们吃了 随着项目的发展 更大的团队应该来接管
to be fed by two pizzas. Larger teams should take over as a product grows.
Establishing a culture of saying yes is also important as saying yes starts things, which
leads to experiences, which in turn leads to increased knowledge. Sir Richard Branson
has developed a nickname at Virgin due to the number of times he uses the word – “Dr.
There are three principles to Google’s strategy. 1. Bet on technical insights, not market research.
A technical insight either reduces cost or increases functionality of a product significantly.
Nearly every successful Google product has them. Google Search was better than any previous
search engines because the founders worked out how relevant a web page is to a search
query based on which other pages link to it. 2. Optimise for growth, not for revenue.
为了达成大的目标 （公司）需要快速 全球化地发展自身
In order to achieve something big, you need to be able to grow quickly and globally, in
换言之 壮大规模 公司的策略必须是快速地发展壮大
other words, scale. The strategy must be to grow big and quickly. Google resisted the
谷歌抵挡了通过在它的主页上放置广告来赚更多钱的诱惑 相反 专注于搜索引擎的改进
urge to make more money by putting adverts on its homepage and instead focused on improving
and investing in the search engine. 3. Let great products grow the market for
everyone. Keeping your product “open” by adhering
to standards and sharing computer code for example, means losing some control but gaining
但却赢得了规模和革新 它允许你利用成千上万的人的才能 他们来自世界各地
scale and innovation. It allows you to utilise the talents of many thousands of people around
the world who may be willing to contribute. Talent
No amount of business strategy can substitute for talent. Google’s recruitment process
is carried out by a committee of the interviewee’s potentially future peers. The committee make
被试者的去留由委员会决定 有时 有人即便不适合空出来的职位 还是被录用了
the final decision. Sometimes people are hired even if they don’t suit an available role.
The important thing is bringing in the best possible people into the company.
A company full of great people attracts yet more great people. One sought-after trait
is passion. Passionate people will often talk at length about their passion, whether its
work related or not. Intelligence is high on the list of priorities
too but as well as that they should have a growth mindset or in other words, be willing
换言之 愿意学习 这对于像信息技术这样的产业来说是尤为重要的
to learn. This is an especially important trait in an industry such as information technology
as it allows the person to handle and enjoy major change.
Other aspects of a person that are observed are their character and how interesting they
are. Does the person treat others well? Would you enjoy their company if you were stuck
with them for an hour? If interviewing, preparation is required.
Interviews need not be longer than thirty minutes as most interviewers can make a call
in that amount of time. The candidate should be pushed with questions that are challenging
but not overly stressful. Using the same questions on different candidates is helpful to compare
responses. When a person joins the company, they should
be paid appropriately. Great people should be paid greatly, but the pay should start
low and performance should be rewarded. Decisions
There’s more to decision making than just making sure you’ve made the right one. The
决定何时做出 做出决定的过程 以及
timing of when the decision was reached, the process of getting to a decision and the way
the decision is carried out are just as important. At Google decisions are made based on data
– and lots of it. Decisions are consensus driven. That means that everyone rallies around
the best idea for the company. It doesn’t mean that there is unanimous agreement necessarily.
争执 辩论和异议都是被鼓励的 并有助于确认做出了
Conflict, debate and dissent are all encouraged and help to ensure the right decision has
正确的决定 运用所有这些原则 在2006年1月
been made. All these principles were utilised for Google
to come to a decision to enter the Chinese market and create a localised site, google.cn
google.cn的决定 再次基于这些原则 在调查了对其产品的非法入侵后
in January 2006. They were again used when Google withdrew from China, taking the site
down in March 2010 after investigating hacking attacks on its products.
Communications Effective leaders today share information
rather than keeping it to themselves. As a leader, knowing the details is key too. This
requires asking the right questions. An environment must be created where tough questions can
be asked and the truth can always be told – even when the truth is not good news.
When it comes to email, aim to respond quickly. As a result you’ll be more likely to be
included in decisions and discussions that are important. Emails should be clear and
to the point. There shouldn’t be any content in there that people can skip.
Innovation iOS, the operating system that runs on Apple’s
iPhones and Android, Google’s OS that runs on many other smart phones are two innovative
products created by two of the most innovative companies around today. However, whilst similar
in some ways, they highlight two differing approaches to innovation.
Android is open-source. Anyone can use the software’s code for free and anyone can
sell apps that run on Android devices without approval. Apple’s approach is different
with iOS code being closed and apps requiring approval.
Google defines an innovative product as being new, surprising and radically useful – Google’s
driverless cars being a textbook example, but how does a company become innovative?
The environment needs to be right. It should encourage people smart enough to come up with
new ideas and also encourage those who want to join that individual.
The company focus should be on the user. In 2004, Google bought a start-up called Keyhole.
Using Keyhole’s technology they launched Google Earth. It did not offer any direct
impact to the company financially, but it was a tremendous hit with the user.
充满雄心是谷歌员工的重要品质 也因此 给工程师更多自由的策略成为优势
Thinking big is essential and provides the advantage of giving smart creatives more freedom.
Big challenges also tend to attract big talent. Google also runs a program where its engineers
can spend 20% of their time working on whatever they want. It has spawned some valuable features
from Google’s search engine suggesting search queries as you type, to adding bus and train
information on Google maps. The current age is one where many industries
are feeling the effect of the disruption caused by technology. Gone are the days where people
only watch video on a television for example. There are economic impacts to these industries
due to this, so what can we do to survive this period?
Businesses should utilise new platforms to their advantage which will enable them to
produce great products. The social web, where users can share things and talk about them
has emerged. Companies should ensure that their products and services compliment the
social web. Think not only about your company, but the
future as well. What could be true five years from now and how will it affect the landscape?
Schmidt and Rosenberg believe that with enough data and ability, any challenge can be solved.
Computers will continue to make lives easier and better but for yet more people. Speed
网速会持续加快 由于信息自由流动 合作也持续增加
will continue to increase, as will the amount of collaboration thanks to the free flow of
information. The future is bright as technology will transform practically every industry
谷歌是如何运作的？作者：Eric Schmidt和Jonathan Rosenberg