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How GOOGLE Works | Animated Book Summary

谷歌是如何运作的?作者:Eric Schmidt和Jonathan Rosenberg
How Google Works by Eric Schmidt and Jonathan Rosenberg
Eric Schmidt曾在谷歌担任CEO十年 他在2001年开始担任CEO
Eric Schmidt was the CEO of Google for ten years. He became the CEO in 2001. At that
在那时 谷歌是一个已成功运营三年的新兴互联网企业
point it was a successful three-year-old internet start-up, but was already preparing to compete
但已准备好和微软竞争 谷歌和Schmidt以往工作过的地方都不同
with the giant Microsoft. Google was different to other places Schmidt
即便作为CEO 他也不得不和其他员工共用办公室 公司在扩大规模
had worked. Even as CEO he had to share his office. The company was growing in size and
并且在2002年的时候 Jonathan Rosenberg以产品管理主管的身份加入
in 2002 Jonathan Rosenberg joined as Head of Products.
The company’s early principles consisted of focusing on the user, hiring as many great
尽可能地多雇佣软件工程师 并给予他们自由
software engineers as they could and give those engineers freedom. Google was managed
with informal meetings of small engineering teams.
在2003年 Schmidt和Rosenberg被指控制定商业计划对付微软
In 2003 Schmidt and Rosenberg were charged with creating a business plan to take on Microsoft.
要执行这项计划 就必须学会一种新的管理方式
To carry it out involved learning a new way of managing these smart creatives who are
not shackled by organisation structures and defined rules. They’ve been learning and
自从那时 他们就学习并记录了这些新的管理方法 并且这本书让我们了解到
documenting these new management methods ever since and this book gives us an insight into
谷歌是如何运作的 并提供了一系列公司发展过程中采取的手段
how Google works, providing a series of steps in the development of the company.
文化当创立一家公司时 文化是一个重要的考虑因素
Culture When starting a company, culture is an important
consideration. Smart creatives need to care about where they work to produce their best
work. The culture should be defined by the founders and the founding team. In Google’s
对谷歌来说 现在的企业文化和过去是一样的
case, the culture of the company is the same now as it was back then.
谷歌办公室的布局不同寻常 它被专门设计成(因未隔离而)较为拥挤的以加强员工间的互动
The office layout at Google is not typical. It is deliberately crowded to encourage interaction
并且减少对其他同事能力的嫉妒 办公室中
and reduce envy of other colleagues’ facilities. Employees are not segregated in the office
雇主们没有被按照不同的职责分隔开 产品经理和工程师坐在一起以加强联系
by what they do; product managers sit with engineers to increase integration. The office
is often messy (a by-product of innovation) but the engineers are given access to as much
计算机权限 谷歌的办公室中摆满了有趣的设施
computing power as possible and Google’s offices are packed with amenities, again promoting
这又加强了员工间的互动 也因此有助于集思广益
more employee interaction and therefore more chance of colleagues putting their heads together
and coming up with the next billion dollar idea.
(谷歌的)组织结构相对扁平 每一个经理至少必须有七个直接下属
The organisational structure is relatively flat. Each manager must have at least seven
direct reports. This helps the smart creatives get stuff done and provides them with better
并接近决策者 公司鼓励形成致力于突破创新的小规模团体
access to the people that make decisions. Small teams working on breakthroughs are encouraged.
亚马逊的CEO Jeff Bezos曾经提出两个披萨原则是说一个团队的人数应该少到
Jeff Bezos of Amazon had a “two pizza team” rule, where the team should be small enough
两个披萨饼就够他们吃了 随着项目的发展 更大的团队应该来接管
to be fed by two pizzas. Larger teams should take over as a product grows.
建立一种说“好”的文化也很重要 因为说“好”是事情的开始
Establishing a culture of saying yes is also important as saying yes starts things, which
这会带来经验 转而带来知识的增长
leads to experiences, which in turn leads to increased knowledge. Sir Richard Branson
维珍公司的Richard Branson因他经常说“是”而获得了Dr.Yes的称号
has developed a nickname at Virgin due to the number of times he uses the word – “Dr.
Yes”. Strategy
谷歌的策略有三条原则1要具有技术上的洞察力 而不是市场调研
There are three principles to Google’s strategy. 1. Bet on technical insights, not market research.
技术上的洞察力既减少了成本 又显著地增加了产品的实用性
A technical insight either reduces cost or increases functionality of a product significantly.
几乎每一个成功的谷歌产品都拥有这两个特性 谷歌搜索引擎比以往任何搜索引擎都要好
Nearly every successful Google product has them. Google Search was better than any previous
search engines because the founders worked out how relevant a web page is to a search
来计算出这个网页和搜索关键字的相关度2为了发展 而非利润去优化
query based on which other pages link to it. 2. Optimise for growth, not for revenue.
为了达成大的目标 (公司)需要快速 全球化地发展自身
In order to achieve something big, you need to be able to grow quickly and globally, in
换言之 壮大规模 公司的策略必须是快速地发展壮大
other words, scale. The strategy must be to grow big and quickly. Google resisted the
谷歌抵挡了通过在它的主页上放置广告来赚更多钱的诱惑 相反 专注于搜索引擎的改进
urge to make more money by putting adverts on its homepage and instead focused on improving
and investing in the search engine. 3. Let great products grow the market for
everyone. Keeping your product “open” by adhering
比如分享代码 分享代码意味着一定程度的失控
to standards and sharing computer code for example, means losing some control but gaining
但却赢得了规模和革新 它允许你利用成千上万的人的才能 他们来自世界各地
scale and innovation. It allows you to utilise the talents of many thousands of people around
the world who may be willing to contribute. Talent
任何商业策略都不能替代人才 谷歌的招聘
No amount of business strategy can substitute for talent. Google’s recruitment process
is carried out by a committee of the interviewee’s potentially future peers. The committee make
被试者的去留由委员会决定 有时 有人即便不适合空出来的职位 还是被录用了
the final decision. Sometimes people are hired even if they don’t suit an available role.
The important thing is bringing in the best possible people into the company.
A company full of great people attracts yet more great people. One sought-after trait
is passion. Passionate people will often talk at length about their passion, whether its
work related or not. Intelligence is high on the list of priorities
too but as well as that they should have a growth mindset or in other words, be willing
换言之 愿意学习 这对于像信息技术这样的产业来说是尤为重要的
to learn. This is an especially important trait in an industry such as information technology
as it allows the person to handle and enjoy major change.
Other aspects of a person that are observed are their character and how interesting they
are. Does the person treat others well? Would you enjoy their company if you were stuck
你会喜欢他们的公司吗?如果要面试 准备是必须的
with them for an hour? If interviewing, preparation is required.
面试时长不必超过30分钟 因为大多数的
Interviews need not be longer than thirty minutes as most interviewers can make a call
in that amount of time. The candidate should be pushed with questions that are challenging
but not overly stressful. Using the same questions on different candidates is helpful to compare
responses. When a person joins the company, they should
他应该被适当地给予报酬 优秀人才应被给予大量报酬
be paid appropriately. Great people should be paid greatly, but the pay should start
但是报酬首先要低 并要就他们的表现适当添加决定
low and performance should be rewarded. Decisions
There’s more to decision making than just making sure you’ve made the right one. The
决定何时做出 做出决定的过程 以及
timing of when the decision was reached, the process of getting to a decision and the way
决议被执行的方式也很重要在谷歌 决议根据大量的数据做出
the decision is carried out are just as important. At Google decisions are made based on data
决定是由大家一致的意见驱使的 这意味着每个人围绕
– and lots of it. Decisions are consensus driven. That means that everyone rallies around
对公司最有利的想法团结起来 这不意味着必然达成全体一致
the best idea for the company. It doesn’t mean that there is unanimous agreement necessarily.
争执 辩论和异议都是被鼓励的 并有助于确认做出了
Conflict, debate and dissent are all encouraged and help to ensure the right decision has
正确的决定 运用所有这些原则 在2006年1月
been made. All these principles were utilised for Google
to come to a decision to enter the Chinese market and create a localised site, google.cn
google.cn的决定 再次基于这些原则 在调查了对其产品的非法入侵后
in January 2006. They were again used when Google withdrew from China, taking the site
down in March 2010 after investigating hacking attacks on its products.
Communications Effective leaders today share information
而不是保留信息作为领导者 知道细节也很关键
rather than keeping it to themselves. As a leader, knowing the details is key too. This
这就要求其问对问题 必须创造一个允许提出难题的环境
requires asking the right questions. An environment must be created where tough questions can
并且问题的真相总是能被告知 即便真相不是好消息
be asked and the truth can always be told – even when the truth is not good news.
至于邮件 力求回复得快结果是你将更可能参与到
When it comes to email, aim to respond quickly. As a result you’ll be more likely to be
included in decisions and discussions that are important. Emails should be clear and
to the point. There shouldn’t be any content in there that people can skip.
创新iOS 这个运行于苹果公司iPhone上的操作系统
Innovation iOS, the operating system that runs on Apple’s
iPhones and Android, Google’s OS that runs on many other smart phones are two innovative
products created by two of the most innovative companies around today. However, whilst similar
尽管在某些方面相似 它们强调以两种不同的方式创新
in some ways, they highlight two differing approaches to innovation.
安卓是资源开放的 任何人都可免费使用软件代码并且
Android is open-source. Anyone can use the software’s code for free and anyone can
任何人都可不经允许使用在安卓设备上运行的软件 而苹果不同
sell apps that run on Android devices without approval. Apple’s approach is different
with iOS code being closed and apps requiring approval.
Google defines an innovative product as being new, surprising and radically useful – Google’s
谷歌的无人驾驶车就是个教科书式的例子 但是一个公司是怎样具有创新能力的呢?
driverless cars being a textbook example, but how does a company become innovative?
环境必须是适合创新的 它鼓励足够聪明的人提出
The environment needs to be right. It should encourage people smart enough to come up with
new ideas and also encourage those who want to join that individual.
公司的焦点应放在用户上 2004年谷歌收购了Keyhole这个刚起步的公司
The company focus should be on the user. In 2004, Google bought a start-up called Keyhole.
运用Keyhole的技术他们开发了谷歌地球 它没有给公司带来
Using Keyhole’s technology they launched Google Earth. It did not offer any direct
任何财务上的不良影响 但对用户来说却是个大冲击
impact to the company financially, but it was a tremendous hit with the user.
充满雄心是谷歌员工的重要品质 也因此 给工程师更多自由的策略成为优势
Thinking big is essential and provides the advantage of giving smart creatives more freedom.
Big challenges also tend to attract big talent. Google also runs a program where its engineers
它允许工程师们花20%的时间做任何想做的事 这催生了一些有价值的产品特点
can spend 20% of their time working on whatever they want. It has spawned some valuable features
from Google’s search engine suggesting search queries as you type, to adding bus and train
information on Google maps. The current age is one where many industries
正感受技术带来的毁灭性影响 像过去那样人们仅仅在
are feeling the effect of the disruption caused by technology. Gone are the days where people
电视上看录像的日子一去不复返了因此 这些产业在经济上受到不良影响
only watch video on a television for example. There are economic impacts to these industries
due to this, so what can we do to survive this period?
商家应该充分利用 能促使其生产好的产品的新平台
Businesses should utilise new platforms to their advantage which will enable them to
produce great products. The social web, where users can share things and talk about them
has emerged. Companies should ensure that their products and services compliment the
不仅要考虑公司 而且要考虑未来
social web. Think not only about your company, but the
从现在开始 五年后会发生什么并且它会怎样影响景况呢?
future as well. What could be true five years from now and how will it affect the landscape?
Schmidt和Rosenberg相信只要有足够的数据和能力 任何挑战都能被克服
Schmidt and Rosenberg believe that with enough data and ability, any challenge can be solved.
从事电脑行业将依旧是更易且更好的维生手段 但行业中的人会增多
Computers will continue to make lives easier and better but for yet more people. Speed
网速会持续加快 由于信息自由流动 合作也持续增加
will continue to increase, as will the amount of collaboration thanks to the free flow of
前景是光明的 因技术几乎会改变每一种产业
information. The future is bright as technology will transform practically every industry
or field.