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How Fish Eat (in SLOW MOTION!) - Smarter Every Day 118

嗨 我是德斯坦 欢迎收看《每天更聪明》
Hey it’s me Destin, welcome back to Smarter Every Day.
那么作为父亲 去钓鱼时 往往要费尽心思地使鱼上钩
So as dads, when you go fishing you spend a lot of time thinking about how to get the fish to bite,
but you don’t really think about how mechanically the fish do the bite. Does that make any sense?
因此 在今天的《每天更聪明》我们将前往澳大利亚的詹姆斯库克大学
So today on Smarter Every Day we’re gonna go to James Cook University in Australia
用幻影相机看看慢镜头下 鱼是怎样上钩的
and look at how a fish bite takes place in slow motion using a Phantom camera.
You’re getting Smarter Every Day.
[ music ]
好的 那么 鱼是怎样进食的呢
OK, so, how do fish eat.
它们把食物吸到嘴里 但是它们必须制造水流 对吗?
So they suck food in, but they have to generate that flow,right?
―噢 你在跟我讲话吗?
– Oh you talking to me?
―是的 西摩博士
– Yes I am, Dr. Seymour.
– I’m trying to do two things at once here.
―好吧 那么我们现在有一大水槽的……澳洲肺鱼?我说对了吗 理查德?
– Alright so we’ve got a big tank of.. barramundi? Am I saying that right Richard?
– Mm hmm.
– Why do you have a stick and a string here?
―这是一支死亡之杖 我们常常用它喂食
– OK this is the stick of death. This is what we use to feed everything with.
我们拿着它 把它放进水槽里的水上注意看 你就会发现澳洲肺鱼浮上来并[吸食音]
So if we hold that over the tank on the water, then you’ll be able to focus on that, and you’ll be able to see the barramundi come up and [sucking sound].
– OK, got it.
―它来了 吃掉了!
– Here he comes, gone!
[ music ]
(Destin) So how do they actually create that flow inwards?
比如说 它们是不是以某种方法扩张了胸腔?
Are they, like increasing the chest cavity somehow?
– It’s the buccal cavity or the mouth.
– Say what?
―口腔 或者说嘴巴 它们张开鳃盖 也就是鳃瓣 然后它们张大嘴巴 让水吸进
– The buccal cavity, the mouth. So they’ll open their operculum, which are the gill flaps, and they open their mouth wide, and that sucks the water in,
总的来说 它们在嘴里制造了一个真空
so they’re basically producing a vacuum in behind it.
– Buccal cavity.
– Yep.
―当它们张开嘴时 为什么水流不会进入鳃里面?
– When they open their mouth, why does flow not come in the gills?
―因为首先它们会将前部打开 你可以来看一下
– Because they open the front first. So you’ll have a look
在高倍速镜头下可以看到 它们会打开鳃前 然后让水流进去
and you’ll see it on the high speed, they’ll open here, and then that’ll go.
And they’ll push.. all the water then comes out through the back of the gills.
当你在高倍速镜头下看到时 它就讲得通了
When you see it on the high speed it will make sense.
– So that’s how they.. No way.
―对 是的!
– Yeah yeah!
―好了 我刚才已经弄明白了
– OK I just had that moment where I figured it out.
– Dong!
―是 所以鱼张开了嘴 水流开始流进了
– Yeah, so the fish opens his mouth, and he starts flow in,
水有个流动的动力 鱼也有个流动的动力
so you fluid momentum going in,and than he still has momentum going in,
如果鱼没有摆脱这个 水就会把鱼推到后面去
and if he doesn’t get rid of that simehow it’ll push him backwards.
– Yep.
―所以当水进入鱼的嘴里时 它张开了鱼鳃 释放出动量
– So when it goes in, after he gets it in his mouth, then he opens his gills and he releases that momentum.
– Yes.
―住口!我都钓了大半辈子的鱼了 我居然不知道
– Shut up! It’ve been fishing my whole life and I didn’t know that.
– And you’ll see it on the high speed.
– Really?
―对 没错
– Yeah yeah.
[ music ]
―好吧 那真难以置信
– Alright. Dude that’s awesome!
– Do it out here in the light.
―所以 当鱼接近食物的时候 并不会加快整个身体的速度去咬住食物 它们鱼嘴的结构复杂 可以把咽喉向前推进
– So the fish is coming up to the food, and instead of accelerating the whole body to grab the food,
fish have a very complex mouth, where they can throw the jaws forward.
所以在最后一刻 它们不用将整个身体向前推进 只要将嘴张大 它们的咽喉就会打开
So instead of throwing the whole body mass forward, at the last moment you have this very complex mouth with all these bones that just opens up,
这样就可以更快地缩小与猎物的差距 更容易捕捉到猎物
so it closes that gap with the prey a lot quicker and a lot easier.
(德斯坦)所以它不需要移动整个身体 只要张开嘴就可以了
(Destin) OK so he doesn’t have to accelerate the mass of his whole body, just the front jaws.
―并不仅仅是咽喉 当咽喉如杰米所说的那样向前推进 它释放了巨大的能量 水也会冲进它的身体里
– No just the jaws, and so when the jaws are thrown forward as Jamie explained, it’s creating this huge volume and the water has to rush into it.
然后通过鱼鳃 那么它们就能吸食
And then out through the gills. And so you’ve got this suction feeding.
– That’s awesome.
– Suction feeders! ram feeders you can call them.
– That’s awesome, really.
– That’s good.
– Do all fish do this?
―不 事实上只有一部分鱼在它们捕食时这样做
– No. Only a few fish actually suck their prey in.
– Because these guys don’t have teeth as such.
―好吧 虽然你告诉我这些专业术语 但这其实就是肺鱼的嘴了
– OK, so teach me the terminology. So there’s the buccal cavity..
– Which is the mouth, yep.
―它们张开这张凹的颊腔 然后张开鱼鳃……
– They open the buccal cavity and then they open the gills..
―哦 这是鳃盖骨的皮瓣 所以鱼鳃在它的后面那么当皮瓣合住 进入鱼身体的入口就只有嘴了
– Or it’s the opercular flap, so the gill is behind this flap. So when that’s closed off, the only entrance is in through the mouth.
水被吸进嘴里 然后就要想办法把它排出去所以就会打开鳃盖骨 然后把水吐回去
Water sucks in, then you’ve gotta get rid of it somewhere, so you then open that out and it’ll all blow through the back here.
– Because you have to dissipate momentum.
―好吧 詹姆斯库克大学只教会了我 鱼是如何进食的 现在我们再熟悉一下
– OK, James Cook University just taught me something about how fish eat, and I’m assuming you..
– Does this work on like your goldfish in your aquarium?
―是的 诸如此类
– Yeah, same sort of thing.
―当你把鱼食放进鱼缸里 你就会看到它张开嘴巴 打开它的鳃盖骨
– When you put the flakes in, you’re gonna see him open his mouth and then open the operculum..
– Mm hmm.
—然后减少作用于胸鳍的能量是的 你变聪明了
– And dissipate that over the pectoral fin. Yeah. You’re getting Smarter Every Day.
我是德斯坦 祝你好运(对话结束用语)
I’m Destin, have a good one.
Have you caught anything yet?
– No sir.
―无论你是否捉到鱼 你今天玩的开心吗
– Do you enjoy it anyway?
– Yes sir.
– Do you wish we had an audio book to listen to?
– Yes sir.
– Which one?
– Captain Nemo.
―拉 拉!儿子快拉!快拉鱼竿!
– Pull, pull! Pull son! Pull it!
– I got a fish!
– There you go!
– Keep reeling it in!
– Alright, OK.
―虫子还在它的嘴里是的 让它把虫子吃了吧
-It still has a worm in his mouth. He Does! Let’s let him eat that worm.
(德斯坦)这就是鱼怎么捕食的 它刚才就在这里张开了嘴 水被它卷到了嘴里 在它把水吐出去之后 它再打开鱼鳃 现在清楚了吗?
(Destin) So this is what happens. He opens his mouth right here, the water gets pulled into his mouth and then he opens his gills after that and he shoots the water out of that. Does that make sense?
– Yes sir.
―抓紧 不要害怕 你准备好了吗?现在把它慢慢地放回水里
– Hold on tight, don’t be scared. You ready? Now slowly let him back in the water.
There you go.
好的 这就是鱼怎么捕食的 如果你对钓鱼的技巧感兴趣或者想要更多《每天更聪明》的素材 你可以登录audible.com/smarter网站 免费阅读有声读本
Alright, so that’s how fish eat. If you are interested in supporting more fishing trips and more episodes of Smarter Every Day, you can support us by going to audible.com/smarter and getting a free audio book.
Does that sound good to you?
– Yes sir.
– What audio book do you recommend?
– Umm.. 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.
―好的 我们在哪里可以听到?
– That’s right. Where do we listen to that?
– In the car.
―是的 如果你对我们的节目感兴趣 登录audible.com/smarter 下载免费的有声读物 您将有机会获得《海底两万里》 同时 可以帮助我们的节目 这是一件很好的事情
– That’s right. So if you’re interested in helping Smarter Every Day, go to audible.com/smarter, download a free audio book, you can get 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, and you can help Smarter Every Day, it’d be a real good thing.
无论怎样 感谢您的支持 你想说谢谢吗?
Anyway, thank you very much. You want to say thank you?
– Thank you!
―好吧 我是德斯坦
– Anyway I’m Destin..
– And bye!
―再见 我是德斯坦 你正在收看《每天更聪明》祝你好运
– And bye. I’m Destin, you’re getting Smarter Every Day, have a good one.