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幻想是怎样改变现实的 – 译学馆
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幻想是怎样改变现实的

How fiction can change reality - Jessica Wise

艾米丽迪金森说,在一个世纪以前,
Emily Dickinson said over a century ago,
没有护卫舰像一本书一样拿走我们的土地,
that there is no frigate like a book to take us lands away,
这是真的。
and it’s true.
当我们拿起一本书,打开电视或看电影,
When we pick up a book, turn on the TV, or watch a movie,
我们着迷的潮流故事变成一个想象的世界。
We’re carried away down the currents of story into a world of imagination.
当我们着陆在一个全新的相似的海岸,
And when we land, on a shore that is both new and familiar,
奇怪的事情发生了。
something strange happens.
踩到岸边时,我们改变了。
Stepping on to the shore, we’re changed.
我们不追溯作者或人物的脚步我们跟着:
We don’t retrace the footsteps of the authors or characters we followed here:
不。相反,我们的鞋走一英里。
no. Instead we walk a mile in their shoes.
研究人员在心理学、神经科学、儿童发展和生物学
Researchers in psychology, neuroscience, child development, and biology
终于开始获得量化的科学证据
are finally starting to gain quantifiable scientific evidence
展示作家和读者一直知道:
showing what writers and readers have always known:
这个故事有一个独特的能力改变一个人的观点。
That stories have a unique ability to change a person’s point of view.
学者们发现的证据表明,故事塑造文化
Scholars are discovering evidence that stories shape culture
大多数我们对生活的相信并不来自于事实
and that much of what we believe about life comes not from fact
但从小说中,我们的想法
but from fiction, that our ideas
关于等级,婚姻,甚至性
of class, marriage, and even gender
还比较新,几个世纪以来,许多意识形态的快
are relatively new, and that many ideologies which held fast for centuries
修正在18世纪,重新拟定在早期的小说。
were revised within the 18th century, and re-drafted in the pages of the early novel.
想象一个世界是班级,而不是工作,决定一个人的价值。
Imagine a world where class, and not hard work, decide a person’s worth.
一个世界,女人只是男人的野性副本。
A world where women are simply men’s more untamed copy.
爱的世界里,婚姻是一种新颖的概念。
A world where marriage for love is a novel notion.
嗯,这是塞缪尔·理查森的帕米拉第一次出现的世界。
Well, that was the world in which Samuel Richardson’s Pamela first appeared.
理查森的爱情故事主演一个贫穷、serving-class女主角
Richardson’s love story starred a poor, serving-class heroine
谁是道德优越和比她聪明上流社会的追求者。
who is both morally superior and smarter than her upper-class suitor.
这本书,挑战的一系列传统,
The book, challenging a slew of traditions,
引起了很大的骚动。
caused quite a ruckus.
关于帕梅拉的新闻超过了国会。
There was more press for Pamela than for Parliament.
它引发了激烈的辩论和几个反小说。
It spawned intense debate and several counter-novels.
不过,对于所有那些无法接受帕梅拉,
Still, for all those who couldn’t accept Pamela,
有些人渴望新的小说世界
others were eager for this new fictional world.
这个畅销书,及其所有这类文学的继承人,
This best-seller, and all its literary heirs,
《傲慢与偏见》,《简爱》,是的,即使是《暮光之城》,
Pride and Prejudice, Jane Eyre, and yes, even Twilight,
不断共享相同的故事,教类似的道理吗
Have continuously shared the same tale, and taught similar lessons
现在是传统的和普遍的。
which are now conventional and commonplace.
同样,小说帮助塑造了
Similarly, novels have helped shape the minds
历史上思想领袖们的思想
of thought leaders across history.
有些学者说,达尔文的进化论
Some scholars say that Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
高度的得益于他所读过和喜欢的情节
is highly indebted to the plots he read and loved.
他的理论给予情报特权
His theory privileges intelligence,
敏捷,适应变化的能力——所有核心英雄的特征。
swiftness, and adaptability to change- all core characteristics in a hero.
无论你是在读哈利波特,还是远大前程
Whether you’re reading Harry Potter or Great Expectations,
你正在读启发了达尔文的那种情节
you’re reading the kind of plot that inspired Darwin.
最近的研究表明这个故事可能并不是全部的故事
Yet recent studies show that his theory might not be the whole story,
我们的英雄——一个人,或者一个女人,甚至一个物种
our sense of being a hero- one man, or one woman, or even one species
接受世界的挑战可能是错的。
taking on the challenges of the world might be wrong.
而不是天生的竞争,
Instead of being hard-wired for competition,
在我们自己的故事里成为孤独的英雄
for being the solitary heroes in our own story,
我们可能被当做一个资源分享的探险队的一名成员
we might instead be members of a shared quest.
是霍比特人,而不是哈利比特
More Hobbit than Harry.
有时,当然,我们正在走路时穿的鞋子会磨损
Sometimes, of course, the shoes we’ve been walking in can get plain worn out.
毕竟,我们还没有走一英里在简·奥斯汀或马克吐温的鞋子,
After all, we haven’t walked just one mile in Jane Austen or Mark Twain’s shoes,
我们走了大约一百万亿英里。
we’ve walked about a hundred trillion miles in them.
这并不是说,我们不能阅读和享受经典,
This isn’t to say that we can’t read and enjoy the classics,
我们应该与狄更斯一起旅行
we should travel with Dickens,
让皮普教我们对自己有期许,
let Pip teach us what to expect from ourselves,
和伊丽莎白·奥斯汀谈论我们的骄傲和偏见。
have a talk with Austen and Elizabeth about our prides and prejudices.
我们应该与吐温一起在密西西比河浮舟而行
We should float with Twain down the Mississippi,
并且让吉姆告诉我们什么是好的。
and have Jim show us what it means to be good.
但是在旅行中,我们也应该铭记
But on our journey, we should also keep in mind
环境已经改变了。我们开始购物新靴子
that the terrain has changed. We’ll start shopping around for boots
为走进一个新的时代。
that were made for walking into a new era.
比如,Katniss Everdeen与国会大厦的斗争。
Take, for instance, Katniss Everdeen and her battle with the Capitol.
饥饿游戏能引导我们重新思考资本主义吗?
Can Hunger Games lead us into thinking about capitalism in a new way?
它能给我们一个教训为何个人不应该把个人放在团队之前?
Can it teach us a lesson about why the individual should not put herself before the group?
将丑陋反映的危险追求一个完美的身体吗
Will Uglies reflect the dangers of pursuing a perfect body
并且让媒体定义什么是美丽的?
and letting the media define what is beautiful?
寻求超越全球变暖踩出一条路吗?
Will Seekers trod a path beyond global warming?
将Toklo的生死斗争,
Will the life and death struggles of Toklo,
Kallik社和其他熊图理解动物的一门课程
Kallik, Lusa, and the other bears chart a course for understanding animals
在他们的世界和我们的吗?
and our place in their world?
只有未来会分辨出什么样故事会出现在我们的想象中,
Only the future will tell which stories will engage our imagination,
我们明天又会创造出怎样的虚构故事
which tales of make-believe we’ll make tomorrow,
但是好消息是:
but the good news is this:
每天都会有新的冒险开始。
There are new stories to venture in every day.
新的故事会引发新的影响,去创造,去改变。
New tales that promise to influence, to create, and to spark change.
你甚至可以写自己的故事。
Stories that you might even write yourself.
所以我猜最后一个问题会是这样:
So I guess the final question is this:
接下来你会尝试什么样的冒险?
what story will you try on next?

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