How far from earth have earth living beings died?
No living beings born on the earth can avoid dying
或早或晚 死在同一片土地上 或者说 他们能吗？
sooner or later on the same planet. Or can they?
It turns out that now in the age of space travel,
there are other possibilities.
As of 2016, 18 astronauts are reported to have died during spaceflights
with 15 of them dying right after the launch or upon atmospheric reentry
and only three of them perishing in space
The three people above were the Soviet cosmonauts.
弗拉季斯拉夫•沃尔科夫 维克多•帕查耶夫 格奥尔吉•多勃罗沃利斯基
Vladislav Volkov, Viktor Patsayev and Georgi Dobrovolsky,
the crew of Soyuz 11.
On June 30 1971, after spending over 23 days in orbit,
they were undocking from space station Salyut 1
when a breathing ventilation valve was unexpectedly jerked open
during the separation of the orbital and descent modules.
This resulted in a steady loss of pressure,
which caused the cosmonaut’s death within about 30 seconds.
The tragedy occurred at the height of about 167 kilometers.
So sadly, this is the farthest from the earth that humans have ever died.
However, human space missions were proceeded by launching other living creatures into space.
The United States and the USSR had been putting animals atop rockets since 1947.
那些动物主要是狗 猴子 猩猩 瓶装黄蜂 甲壳虫 乌龟
These were mainly dogs, monkeys, chimps, bottles of wasps, beetles, tortoises,
苍蝇 蠕虫 鱼 蜘蛛 兔子 蜜蜂 蚂蚁 青蛙 老鼠 蟋蟀 老鼠
flies, worms, fish, spiders, rabbits, bees, ants, frogs, mice, crickets, rats,
and some other animals many of which died in space.
But the living beings that have died farthest from Earth are not humans or tested animals.
These are microbes.
Even though spacecrafts need to be and are thoroughly sterilized
in order not to contaminate their new environment.
Many bacterials spores are still found on them after all the cleaning steps.
Sometimes this can even lead to a cancellation of the mission.
比如 2003年 因为害怕污染结满冰的卫星欧罗巴
For example, in 2003 fearing contamination of the icy moon Europa,
scientists controlling the Galileo Mission crashed the spacecraft into Jupitor
to prevent microbes from accidentally taking seed on the Moon which might be habitable.
So, no matter what new methods are developed for sterilizing spacecraft,
即使暴露在紫外线和电离辐射 极端温度 真空环境下
some microbes remain alive even after exposure to the ultraviolet and ionizing radiation,
extreme temperatures and vacuum of space.
A 2008 study reveal the presences of
1.98 times 1011 power bacterial per sterilized spacecraft prior to launch.
If hypothetically 1 in 1000 of these microorganisms survives in space conditions,
and one in ten of these finds a place aboard to avoid ultraviolet radiation then
then an average voyager must carry about 10 millions spores into deep space.
Based on another study, their death rate is proved to be 30% per 6 years,
which means in 50 years time their nubmer will still be 1 million
with one of them dying every 10 minutes,
thus setting another record in dying farthest from earth.
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