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我们能飞多远?人类的极限 – 译学馆
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How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.

Is there a border we will never cross?
是否真有即使我们殚精竭虑 也无法抵达的地方?
Are there places we will never reach, no matter how hard we try?
结果是 有
Turns out there are.
就算能使用科幻小说里的先进技术 我们还是会被困在我们所处的宇宙口袋里
Even with science fiction technology, we are trapped in our pocket of the Universe.
How can that be? And, how far can we go?
银河系是一个普通尺寸的螺旋星系 直径约为十万光年
We live in a quiet arm of the Milky Way; A spiral galaxy of average size,
– about 100,000 light years across –
银河系由数以亿万计的恒星 气体云 暗物质 黑洞 中子星
consisting of billions of stars, gas clouds, dark matter, black holes, neutron stars,
和行星组成 在它的中心还有一个质量巨大的黑洞
and planets, with a supermassive black hole in the galactic centre.
从远处看 银河系似乎很致密 但实际上它的内部大多都是真空
>From afar, our galaxy seems dense, but in reality, it consists, mostly, of empty space.
以目前的科技 想把某人送往距我们最近的恒星要花几千年
With our current technology, sending a human to the closest star, would take thousands of years.
所以你看 我们的星系真的很大
So, our galaxy is pretty big.
不过 银河系并非形单影只
The Milky Way is not alone, though.
它与仙女座星系 及五十多个矮星系一起
Along with the Andromeda galaxy, and more than fifty dwarf galaxies,
it’s a part of “The Local Group”;
a region of space about ten million light years in diameter.
It is one of the hundreds of galaxy groups in the “Laniakea Supercluster”,
which, itself is only one of millions of superclusters,
所有这些超星系团一起 就组成了我们可观测到的浩瀚宇宙
that make up the observable universe.
现在我们稍停片刻 假设一下:假如我们未来一片光明
Now, let’s assume, for a moment, that we have a glorious future;
humanity becomes a type three civilisation,
does not get wiped out by aliens,
甚至还基于我们目前对物理学的理解 实现了星际旅行的话
and develops interstellar travel based on our current understanding of physics.
在这样一种最好的设想下 我们最远能走多远?
In this best case scenario, how far could we possibly go?
答案是 本星系群
Well; the local group.
It’s the biggest structure that humanity will ever be a part of.
即使庞大如本星系群 也不过只占可观测宇宙的
While it’s certainly huge, the local group accounts for only 0.00000000001 % of
the observable universe.
Let this number sink in for a moment.
实际上 我们被局限在可观测宇宙百分之一的一千亿分之一里
We are limited to a hundred billionth of a percent of the observable universe.
说白了 人类确实是有极限的
The simple fact that there is actually a limit for us, and that there is
一想到还有那么多我们永远无法触及到的宇宙 还真是有点恐怖
so much universe that we will never be able to touch, is kind of frightening.
Why can’t we go further?
Well, it all has to do with the nature of nothing.
“无” 或曰真空 实际上非但不空 自身还固有能量
Nothing, or empty space, isn’t empty but has energy intrinsic to itself;
so-called “quantum fluctuations”.
微观而言 宇宙存在着恒常的相互作用
On the smaller scale, there is constant action, particles and antiparticles
appearing and annihilating themselves.
You can imagine this quantum vacuum as a bubbling part:
方块中有致密的 也有不那么致密的部分
with denser, and less dense regions.
现在 我们一起回溯到138亿年前
Now, let’s go back 13.8 billion years when the fabric of space
consisted of nothing at all.
大爆炸之后 宇宙开始膨胀 在几分之一秒的时间内
Right after the big bang, in an event known as cosmic inflation, the observable universe
我们可观测的宇宙 便从弹珠大小 变成了直径几万亿千米那么大
expanded from the size of a marble to trillions of kilometres, in fractions of a second.
This sudden stretching of the universe was so fast and extreme,
以至于那些量子涨落 连同致密和不那么致密的部分
that all those quantum fluctuations were stretched as well,
也被同时地延展开来了 这样一来
and subatomic distances became galactic distances,
with dense and less dense regions.
在宇宙膨胀过后 引力开始将所有的东西拉回来
After inflation, gravity began to pull everything back together.
宏观而言 这过于迅疾和强烈的扩张 已经到了无法遏制的地步
At the largest scale, the expansion was too quick and powerful to overcome
但微观而言 引力的约束取得了胜利
but in smaller scales, gravity emerged victorious.
于是 光阴荏苒 致密的部分 或者说 宇宙的口袋
So, over time, the denser regions, or pockets, of the universe,
变成了星系集群 就像我们目前所居住的本星系群那样
grew into groups of galaxies, like the one we live in today.
只有放在口袋里的东西 – 本星系群 – 才会被重力和我们绑在一起
Only stuff inside our pocket – The Local Group – is bound to us gravitationally.
可是等一等 那问题在哪儿呢?
But wait, what is the problem then?
Why can’t we travel from our pocket, to the next one?
是这样的 暗能量把一切都搞复杂了
Here, dark energy makes everything complicated.
大约在六十亿年 暗能量横行霸道
About six billion years ago, dark energy took over.
所谓暗能量 实际上就是无形的力或作用
It’s basically an invisible force or effect, that causes,
and speeds up the expansion of the universe.
暗能量虽然看不见也摸不着 但我们可以清晰地观测它产生的效果
We don’t know why, or what dark energy is, but we can observe its effect clearly.
早期的宇宙 本星系群周围有许多“冷点”
In the early universe, there were larger, cold spots around the local group,
that grew into clusters with thousands of galaxies.
虽说我们周围到处都是星系和星团 但它们都处于本星系群之外
We are surrounded by a lot of stuff, but none of those structures and galaxies
outside of the local group are gravitationally bound to us.
于是宇宙越变越大 我们与其它重力束缚的口袋
So the more the universe expands, the larger the distance between
us and other gravitational pockets becomes.
随着时间的推移 暗能量也会把宇宙余下的部分推离我们
Over time, dark energy will push the rest of the universe away from us,
这样一来 其他所有的超星系 星系和星系群都会慢慢地触不可及
causing all the other clusters, galaxies, and groups to eventually become unreachable.
The next galaxy group is already millions of light years away,
他们甚至还在以我们想都不敢想的速度 来远离我们
but all of them are moving away from us, at speeds we can’t, ever, hope to match.
我们可以飞离本星系群 进入星系间的空间
We could leave the local group, and then fly through intergalactic space,
一头扎进无垠的黑暗 但就算这样我们也哪儿都去不了
into the darkness, but we would never arrive anywhere.
当我们在黑暗里越走越远的同时 本星系群就会被束缚得越来越紧
While we will become more and more stranded, the local group will become more tightly bound,
而且会挤在一起 几十亿年的时间过后
and merge together to form one giant elliptical galaxy, with the unoriginal name “Milkdromeda”
它们会变成一个巨大的椭圆星系 有人称它为“Milkdromeda”
in a few billion years.
But it becomes even more depressing:
从某种程度上来说 本星系群外的星系 会变得越来越远
at some point, the galaxies outside the local group, will be so far away,
它们的踪影会微弱到难以观察 而且 帮助我们观测它们的光子
that they will be too faint to detect, and the few photons that do make it to us,
也会因长途偏移而导致波长过长 最终变得无法观测
will be shifted to such long wavelengths, that they will be undetectable.
一旦发生这种情况 我们就不能接收到本星系群外的任何信息了
Once this happens, no information outside of the local group will be able to reach us.
The universe will recede from view.
看上去就像四合的暮色 无论哪一个方向都将永远是黑暗和空虚
It will appear to be dark and empty in all directions, forever.
很久之后 Milkdromeda里可能会出现一个生命
A being born in the far future in Milkdromeda,
will think there is nothing but its own galaxy in the entire universe.
当他们远望无垠的虚空 只会看到更多的黑暗和虚无
When they look far into empty space, they will only see more emptiness and darkness;
they won’t be able to see the cosmic background radiation,
and they won’t be able to learn about the Big Bang.
They will have no way of knowing what we know today;
膨胀中宇宙的本质 以及宇宙在何处开始 又将于何处终结
the nature of the expanding universe, where it began, and how it will end.
They will think the universe is static and eternal.
Milkdromeda将会变成黑暗中的一座孤岛 慢慢被黑暗所淹没
Milkdromeda will be an island in the darkness, slowly getting darker and darker.
但不得不说 拥有数以万亿颗星星的本星系群
But still, with its trillions of stars, the local group is certainly
large enough for humanity.
毕竟 我们目前连如何离开我们的太阳系都不知道
After all, we still haven’t figured out how to leave our solar system,
and we have billions of years to explore our galaxy.
我们何其幸运 能够生在完美的当下
We have the incredible luck to exist at the perfect moment in time to see,
不仅能回顾遥远的过去 还能展望美好的未来
not only our future but also our most distant past.
透过遥远和隔绝的本星系群 我们得以一窥整个宇宙的浩瀚
As isolated and remote as the local group is, we can perceive the entire universe,
宏大且壮丽 一如当下
grand and spectacular as it is right now.
This video was sponsored by
Do you feel isolated in a humongous universe?
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humanoids around you?
来Squarespace吧 我们有易懂易用的工具来帮你完成
Squarespace lets you do that with easy-to-understand tools
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You can also use the code “NUTSHELL” to save 10 % and support Kurzgesagt
in making more videoes about our place in the universe.
致Ethan Siegel感谢你对我在这个视频上的帮助
Thanks so much for the help with the video to Ethan Siegel.
Follow his astronomy blog here.
你可以直接在Patreon上支持我们 或者在这儿买Kurzgesagt的周边商品
You can support us directly at Patreon or get Kurzgesagt merch here.
It really helps.
很高兴你能看到这儿 想了解更多有关宇宙的东西 请看下面的播放列表
It is awesome that you watched this far, so we have made a playlist for you about more universe stuff.
听录字幕者: Sebastian Winkelmann
Subtitles made by Sebastian Winkelmann
字幕发布 Amara.org社区
Subtitles by the community