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旅行者1号还能走多远?

How far can Voyager 1 go before we lose contact?

In 1977, the Voyager 1 space probe was launched
1977年 用于研究外太阳系的
to study the outer solar system.
旅行者1号太空探测器成功发射
The two Voyager space probes have become
两艘旅行者号现已成为
the longest operating spacecrafts in spaceflight history.
航天史上运行时间最长的航天器
41 years later, Voyager 1 is now 21 Billion kilometres from Earth
41年后 旅行者1号现已距地210亿公里
and traveling at 61000 kilometers per hour.
并以每小时61000公里的速度行进
Despite Voyager 1 being the furthest man made object from Earth,
尽管旅行者1号是距地球最远的人造物
we’re still able to communicate with the space probe on a regular basis.
我们仍能定期与此太空探测器进行联络
But how far can it go before we can no longer communicate with it?
但直到我们与其失联 它还能走多远呢?
To answer this, we need to know
为了回答这个问题 我们需知道
how Voyager 1 receives and transmits data
旅行者1号是如何从210亿公里外
from 21 Billion Kilometres away.
接收和传输数据的
A 20 KiloWatt signal is transmitted
20千瓦的信号通过无线电
from Earth to Voyager 1 using radio waves.
从地球传输到旅行者1号
It takes almost 20 hours for the signal to reach
这大约需要20个小时
the space probe where it’s sensitive antenna picks up the signal.
在探测器上 灵敏的天线会接收信号
For comparison, it takes the rovers on Mars
然而 火星探测器向地球
an average of just 15 minutes to send messages back to Earth.
发回信息平均只需15分钟
Voyager starts sending data back to Earth
因此 旅行者号开始用20瓦的信号
using a 20 Watt signal.
向地球发送数据
As it travels through space, the signal strength weakens.
当信号穿越太空时 强度减弱
And by the time it reaches Earth, the signal is barely detectable.
等到达地球后 信号几乎无法被检测到
In order to communicate with objects that are this far away,
为了与距离这么远的物体交流
it doesn’t really matter how strong the signal is,
信号的强弱并没有那么重要
as long as you have a receiver
只要你有一个
that is sensitive enough to pick it up.
足够灵敏的接收器即可
NASA uses the Deep Space Network,
美国国家航空航天局使用了深空网络
which consists of three antenna complexes
该网络由三个平均分布在地球周围的
equally spaced around the Earth.
天线复合体组成
Each complex has a huge 70 metre antenna
每个复合体包括一个巨大的70米天线
along with multiple 34 metre antennae,
和多个34米天线
which can be combined to pick up signals
二者结合起来可以接收
that are thousands of times weaker than your standard FM radio signal.
比标准调频无线电信号弱数千倍的信号
The Deep Space network spends several hours each day
深空网络每天花几个小时
listening to faint signals from Voyager 1,
来监听来自旅行者1号的微弱信号
and so far, it continues to talk back to us.
且至今 它仍然在与我们保持通讯
Since our methods of detecting signals
由于我们探测信号的方法
has improved drastically over the past 50 years,
已在过去的50年里有了极大改善
there isn’t really a limit on
所以无论多远
how far we can communicate with objects in Space.
我们都可以与太空中的物体进行交流
With our current technology, we could reliably communicate with objects
以我们目前的技术 我们可以同许多光年
that are many light years away from us,
以外的物体进行可靠的交流
as long as our receivers are sensitive and accurate enough
只要我们的接收器足够灵敏和准确
to pick up the extremely weak signals.
能接收到极其微弱的信号即可
As Voyager travels further and further away from Earth,
当旅行者号离地球越来越远
it takes longer to send and receive signals.
发送和接收信号的时间也就更长
The signal strength also gets weaker and data rates become slower
信号越来越弱 数据传输速率也越来越慢
making it harder and harder to communicate with the spacecraft.
与航天器的通信也就越来越困难
Voyager 1 will continue on its journey indefinitely,
旅行者1号将会无限期地继续它的旅程
and although there is technically no limit to how far we can communicate,
然而 尽管技术上没有限制可交流的距离
our communication with Voyager 1 only has a few years left.
但能与旅行者1号交流的时间只剩几年了
Since Voyager 1 is nuclear powered,
由于旅行者1号是核能驱动的
the electrical power weakens each day.
其电力每天都在削弱
In 1990, in order to save power,
1990年 为了节省电力
engineers turned off the spacecraft’s camera
在拍摄了著名的《暗淡蓝点》图像后
after Voyager took the famous “Pale Blue” Dot image,
工程师们便关闭了航天器的摄像头
which showed Earth as a tiny blue pixel
图像显示 地球是黑暗太空中
against the darkness of space.
一颗很小的蓝色像素
Today, only 4 out of the 11 scientific instruments
今天 旅行者1号上11个科学仪器中
on Voyager 1 are still active.
只有4个仍在工作
These instruments are being used to collect data on magnetic fields,
这些仪器被用来收集太阳系外有关磁场
solar winds, and cosmic rays outside of our solar system.
太阳风 和宇宙射线的数据
In around 8 years, Voyager 1 will completely run out of power
大约8年后 旅行者1号将彻底耗尽电力
and will no longer be able to keep it’s instruments going.
再也不能保持其仪器运行
Scientists will continue to communicate with the space probe
科学家们会继续与太空探测器交流
and receive the important information it gathers
接收探测器收集到的重要信息
until it eventually sends its last bit of data
直到它发送了最后一点数据
and disappears silently into space,
无声无息地消失在太空中
never to be heard from ever again.
再也听不到它的声音
So although the end is near for the Voyager space probes,
尽管旅行者号探测器的旅程已经接近尾声
we can appreciate the incredible journey they have been on
但我们仍能欣赏到它们不可思议的旅程
and the valuable science they have taught us.
以及它们教授给我们的宝贵科学知识
Thank you to the Primal Space Patrons
感谢《揭秘太空》的资助人
who helped to write and research each video.
他们帮助编写和研究了每一个视频
If you’d like to contribute to Primal Space,
如果你想为《揭秘太空》出一份力
please visit Patreon.com/PrimalSpace,
请访问Pareon.com/PrimalSpace
where we will be doing a giveaway of a Saturn V Lego set
一旦我们的赞助商达到50位
once we reach 50 Patrons.
我们将赠送一套土星5号乐高玩具
So make sure you’ve subscribed,
所以请订阅本频道
so you can join the discussion
这样您可以加入讨论
as we continue to learn more about all things space.
我们将会继续学习更多关于空间的知识
Thank you very much for watching and I’ll see you in the next video.
非常感谢您的观看 下期节目再见
《揭秘太空》

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视频概述

该视频介绍了关于旅行者1号是如何传输数据及旅行者1号的现状。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

芝士焗蜜薯

审核员

审核员QC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aalfNIvQaJ4

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