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Facebook的算法是如何让扎克伯格成为史上最有影响力的人? – 译学馆
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Facebook的算法是如何让扎克伯格成为史上最有影响力的人?

How Facebook’s Algorithm Makes Zuckerberg the Most Powerful Human in History | Oliver Luckett

最近有很多人在讨论社交泡沫 回音室效应
There’s been so much conversation recently about societal bubbles, echo chambers
媒体泡沫 个人算法泡沫之类的话题
media bubbles, personal algorithm bubbles.
我的新闻推送让我觉得每个人和自己的想法都一样
My newsfeed told me that everyone thought the same way I did.
但实际上不是这样的
And there’s a conflict there.
之所以出现这种情况 最重要原因之一是像Facebook这样的公司
One of the biggest reasons that those emerged was that companies like Facebook at the end
只是将用户当作它们售卖的产品
of the day you’re the product they’re selling.
事实上他们是将你当作网络中的廉价商品 售卖给广告商
They’re actually selling you as a sale on that network; they’re selling you to advertisers
所以他们需要讨好你 需要找一些和你相似的用户
and so they need to put a nice polite bow around you and they need to find look-alik
这些用户想法和你类似 看上去和你属于一类人
audiences that think like you and look like you.
做到这点最简单的方法是将注意力集中在网站算法上 你的社交网站页面
And the easiest way to do that is algorithmically to focus on, and at the same time there was
永远没有不喜欢选项 只有点赞选项
never the dislike button, there was the like button.
他们设计一个这样的正面信息反馈系统
And so if you have a positive based signaling system like that that is designed to create
其目的是创立一个志趣相投者聚集的文明社区以便广告商定向投放广告
a polite community of like minded people so that I could be targeted easier by an advertiser
这是用户个人信息被售卖的结果
because my information is what’s being sold, then the result of that is going to be a nice
于是我们仿佛置身于一个和谐的充满回音的大气泡中 这就是社交媒体的现状
polite bubble echo chamber and we’re seeing that right now.
人们惊异于自己竟看不见此网络社区中的另一半人群
And people are astonished that I didn’t see the other half of this community, literally
实际上 即和自己想法不同的那部分用户
half of them that thought differently than me.
看不到那部分人的观点
I don’t see the ideas of that.
在现代历史甚至任何其它人类历史上 从来没有一个人能像扎克伯格一样
At no point in modern history or in any human history has one person had as much control
在如此大的程度上掌控我们所想 所见及所做
over what we think, what we see, what we do than Mark Zuckerberg.
他现在拥有人类历史上无人能及的权利
He has more power than anyone in human history right now.
最可怕的是 我不认为他生来就是坏人
And the scariest thing about it is, because I don’t think he’s innately a bad person,
我对他知之不多 所以不好评价但问题是我们没有知情权
I don’t know him enough to say one way or the other, but the problem is it’s not transparent.
我们完全不知道Facebook是运用什么手段控制着
We have no idea what dials are being pulled or what knobs are being turned that are controlling
给我们推送的信息
the information coming to us.
我开始认真思考这些是因为我经历过的两次重要事件
There are two big moments that I’ve had that made me really think about this.
第一次是我曾代表一群名人入驻facebook 他们对入驻这样的平台感到不安
The first is is that I used to represent a bunch of celebrities that were uncomfortable
因为不知道自己在网站上的身份是名人
coming into platforms like Facebook because they didn’t know if it was about them as a
还是某个普通高中生朋友
celebrity or if it was about them as a high school friend.
所以我们很早就和Facebook及其他平台合作 并建立了一套规则
And so we worked early on with Facebook and with other platforms to kind of set a set
通过将一位名人与一张Facebook页面关联起来的
of rules, here’s how we would engage with a famous person and a Facebook page would
的方式可以看出我们的运作模式
mean this.
我们通过帮助这些名人创建内容这样他们可以与用户
And so we helped those celebrities create content to talk to their audiences to build
建立直接沟通
a direct connection.
于是突然间冒出了很多像马克·沃尔伯格 查理兹·塞隆 休·杰克曼这样的人
And suddenly there were people like Mark Wahlberg or Charlize Theron or Hugh Jackman or any
他们有数量巨大的粉丝 以自己为中心构建了巨大的社交网络
of these people that are massive accounts inside of social they suddenly look like massive social networks
一个人点击一下按钮马上就会推送到两千万粉丝 这严重威胁到了一种商业模式
The idea that one person could push a button and reach 20 million fans was a big threat
即平台出售广告 而不是名人出售广告
to a business model based on me selling the advertising, not of the celebrity selling the advertising
这确实是从算法上对内容进行抑制的因源之一
And that was really one of the births of the algorithmic suppression of content.
于是我们开始看到 每周二Facebook优化代码应用时
And so we started seeing that on code drop Tuesdays in Facebook
有人会突然新增500万粉丝
suddenly a person that would reach five million people out of the 12 million
而他们本就已经有了1200万粉丝
that they had as fans
若大家喜欢他们的内容 会有10万个赞
people loved their content would engage 100,000 likes, 300,000 likes
如果是大家特别喜欢的内容 则会有30万的赞
really great content that people loved
通过算法对内容进行抑制 我们开始看到了如此大规模的回应
we would just see that being dialed down and we started seeing it at such a mass scale
本书的诸多想法皆来源于此
and that’s where a lot of the ideas of this book came from
我每个月通过信息实时流通的社交网络 观测上10亿的数据信息
is I was looking at a trillion pieces of data a month across this network that was connected to
at times over eight billion connections
有时候仅仅7亿人在线就可以创造超过80亿的连接
in a system that was only 700 million people at the time.
由此我们可以快速了解到正在发生的事情
So we had a really good snapshot of what was happening.
随着上述商业模式的发展 对于Facebook来说 是每周一次的流量爆表
And as the business model grew for Facebook it was dial it down, dial it down weekly
然后人们开始惊呼是Facebook在引诱和转变自己
And people start screaming but you bait and switched me
Facebook一开始告诉用户要自己创造内容
You told me to make content.
于是大家来注册 投钱吸粉
I went out there and I put money into your system to gain followers, to gain fans.
不仅对于名人是这样 对于像纽约时报这样的公司
It wasn’t just celebrities, it was companies like The New York Times or companies like
或者是像你这样的普通用户 或者任何想建立一定粉丝基础的公司都是一样
yourselves or companies that wanted to reach an audience and build a base and then suddenly
然后突然 Facebook告诉用户 涨粉是基于你和你的粉丝之间的信任
Facebook said well, you know, I understand that this is based on a trusted system between
粉丝们关注你是因为他们想知道你的观点和动态
you and your consumer and that consumer subscribed to you because they really want to hear from
我们只是这之中的媒介
you, but we’re the business in between now.
从长远的视角来看 充当这种媒介是很难的 我们关注某个人
And that’s a hard business to be in in a long-term perspective because I subscribed to someone
是因为我们相信并需要这个信息源
because I trust that source and I need that source.
只要有这种算法存在 我们就没有知情权 同时 你应该看看下面说的的这个研究
And so that algorithm, until we have transparency, and then at the same time you read about these
即Facebook自作主张 在无人知情的情况下随机选取30万人
studies where Facebook arbitrarily without anyone knowing took 300,000 random people
这周给他们推送正面的内容 下周推送负面的内容
and turned up positive content that week and turned up negative content the next week.
这只是他们拿用户做的一项实验
And they just wanted to do an experiment on people.
你不能在人们没有同意的情况下拿他们做实验
You can’t to do experiments on people without them agreeing.
噢 原来当我们点击那些服务条款时在第二十七页的一个角落里提到了我们要对你开展
Oh, it’s in our click through terms of service 27 pages deep we’re going to do random experiments
随机的社会实验
on you socially.
这些事情严重困扰了我 它们萦绕我的脑海里
Those are things that are really troubling to me and those are things that in my mind
汇成一股渴望 即我们应该拥有对算法的知情权
are a rallying cry around transparency of these algorithms, around transparency of why
拥有对信息推送机制的知情权
am I getting this information?
出现这种(没有知情权)现象背后的原因是什么
What is the reason behind this?
仅仅六种表情 像是惊讶 悲伤 生气并不能表达我们的所有情绪
And not six different emotions that I can express of wow or sadness or anger, like fuck
有时候我们也想说 “去你的我才没那么蠢”
you I’m not that stupid.right?
让我们拥有知情权
Give me transparency.
如果现在有70%的千禧一代从Facebook接收新消息
If 70 percent of millennials are now receiving news information from Facebook, please show
请让我们对这些消息的来源和可信度源拥有知情权 以及edge rank的算法原理
me some transparency in the sources, in the trust factor, what is the edge rank.
facebook将edge rank算法完善 并使人们相信
Facebook perfected edge rank as a concept that now puts it in people’s vocabulary of
它是内容提供者和受众粉丝之间的一个值得信赖的信用评分体系
the trusted credit score between myself as a content provider and my audience.
其它的我们就不知道了
We don’t know anymore.
我们没有知情权
There is no transparency.
这种自作主张的行为 令我感到害怕
It’s really arbitrary and that scares me.
非常害怕
That terrifies me.
不仅是在新闻推送这一块
And it’s not just in the newsfeed.
还有一次 我想把一张医学书上的图片发送给一个人
I had an experience where I sent an image from a medical textbook of a guy that I was
当时我在和这个人打嘴仗 我想讥讽他小弟弟小
in a fight with and I was like you’re acting like you have a micropenis.
于是我打开谷歌搜索 输入小弟弟这个关键词
And I went in Google and I went on search and I typed micropenis and of the first image
第一张图片是一本医学书上一个47岁的人我把这张图片拉进我的Facebook对话框
I got was from a medical textbook of a 47-year-old person and I dragged that into my Facebook
发过去了
chat window and sent it.
当时我正在车里 突然我的立体声音乐停止了 因为我的Spotify是联网的
And instantly, I was riding passenger in a car, the stereo went off because my Spotify
而我的Facebook账号被封禁了当然 Instagram也登不进去了
was connected, my Facebook account was blocked, of course Instagram I couldn’t get into that,
Soundcloud也进不去了因为我是用Facebook账号登陆的
I couldn’t get into SoundCloud because I used my Facebook for there.
当时我就愣了
And then I was like what?
然后我试着重新登录Facebook
So I tried to log back into Facebook.
它说你因为涉嫌传递国际儿童色情信息正在接受调查
It said you’re under investigation for international child pornography.
我还能说啥?
I was like what?
于是我回到谷歌搜索页面 确信那只是一本医学书籍
So I went back to Google and I was like okay that’s a medical textbook.
图片是一个47岁的成年人这可以证明并没有什么儿童色情信息
It’s a 47-year-old I have the proof that this is not child pornography.
我感到很愤怒 这时候我该找谁?
And then I was enraged and I was like who do I call?
于是我拨打了服务热线 对方无能为力
So I went in the helpline and they said there’s nothing you can do.
因为你正在接受调查
You’re under review.
我们会在三天内将你的账户解禁 可能的话
We’ll get back to you within three days maybe.
这就是他们的回复
That was the response.
然而这些人有我的身份信息而所有我网络生活需要的那些信息
I was like wait these people have my identity, all these things that I’m relying upon are
都与这个社交网络相关联
connected to this system.
与我打嘴仗的家伙最终没有收到那张图 因为我打电话问了他
The guy never received the image on the other side because I called him and I said did you
看他是否收到了图片
get an image for me?
他说没有 然后挂掉了
He said no it just shut off.
这让我感到很害怕
That’s terrifying to me.
一个社交系统可以抹除一个人 不理会任何追索任何补救
Someone can just be erased from a system without any recourse, without anything?
这对于一个人来说是何其大的权力
That’s too much power for one person.
所以我一直都在努力改变这种状况后来我觉得应该有人
And so I’ve been pushing a lot and what I’ve been saying lately is somebody should invent
去创造一种封锁系统之内的身份标识这样我们就可以有自己的身份识别系统
identity within the block chain so that we have an identity system that is mine.
在冰岛我们管这叫Kennitala
In Iceland we have this thing called a Kennitala.
这是一种独一无二的身份标识实际上就是属于你的独特的身份标识号码
It’s a unique identifier that is literally your unique ID, your genetic records, your
你的遗传信息 病史 经济状况都包含在里面而且我们有完全的知情权
health records, your financial records all in one and it allows me to have total transparency
不论是对于所处的系统还是我们偶遇的什么人
across a system and anyone that I’m encountering.
所以你不需要发薪日贷款机构 支票兑现处 信用评分
So you don’t need a payday lender or a check cashing place or a credit score or any of
或任何这种第三方的鉴定机构的存在因为你有了真正的身份标识
these third-party parasites that exist in our system because you have real identity.
正是这些基本的事实 使我有了新的看法
And so those are kind of fundamental things that I think out of this new awareness we’re
我们开始意识到我们需要的是不会被篡取的身份标识这个数字身份标识
going to start realizing that we need incorruptible identity, we need to have our digital identity
是我们身为人类的一部分是这个系统里的一部分
as part of us of who we are as human beings as part of this system.
因为依赖Facebook这样的一个商业性盈利机构 使其取得我们的身份标识
Because relying upon a commercial interest like Facebook to have our identity, to capture
取得我们数字化生活中的一切重要信息使得它能轻易的抹杀我们
everything it means in our digital life and they can just flip a switch, ask anybody that’s
问问那些被Facebook封禁过的人吧
been blocked by Facebook.
他们都没有追索的余地
There is no recourse.
由一个不相关的人来决定你是好是坏
You’re up to somebody in a farm deciding whether or not you’re a good person or a bad person
决定你配不配拥有一个社交账户
or whether or not you deserve an account.
对任何机构来说 这种加诸于我们的权力都太大了
That is way too much power for any institution to have over us.

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本视频是由Facebook引发的反思,虽是一家之言,也可以听听看。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y99HOU_mKQo

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