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大象如何用脚去听? – 译学馆
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大象如何用脚去听?

How Elephants Listen ... With Their Feet | Deep Look

感谢好奇流对PBS数字工作室的支持
Thanks to Curiosity Stream for supportingPBS Digital Studios.
非洲大草原上传来隆隆的声音
A rumble sounds on the African savannah.
女族长说话了 敦促象群离开水坑
The matriarch speaks, urging the herd to leavethe watering hole.
但信息远不止传给她的亲人
But the message reaches more than her ownkin.
其他大象离得太远 声音传不到耳朵
Other elephants, too far off for the sound to reach their ears,
但凭借他们的脚
get the message, too…
也同样获取到了信息……
…with their feet.
半小时的路程之外
A half hour’s march away,
对手部落的女族长指导她的族群前往水坑
a rival matriarch directs her own clan to the watering hole
现在她知道这里是空闲的
now that she knows it’s free.
一只四处游荡 孤独的公象
A roving, solitary bull starts to move
开始朝着族长发出指令的方向移动
towards the matriarch’s call too, hoping to find
希望能够找到他的伙伴
a mate.
科学家们把这称作震感通信
Scientists call this seismic communication.
这就是世界上最大的陆地动物 当处于
It’s how the world’s largest land animals keep tabs
视力和听力都达不到的地方时
on each other in a place where eyes
是如何与对方保持联系的
and ears aren’t always enough.
大象的声带尺寸是我们人类的八倍
With vocal chords eight times the size of ours,
因此他们能一次性发出
elephants send out two types of sound
两种类型的声波
waves at once.
这种是高频率的
There are the high frequency ones.
这种声波通过空气和陆地快速传进耳朵
Those travel quickly through the air and landon the ear.
不过只能近距离传播 大概一英里左右
They only go a short distance, about a mileor so.
第二种是低频率声波
The second are low-frequency waves.
它们借助地球结构前进 能传播更远
They move through the earth, and travel much further —
至少是5到6英里之外
at least 5 or 6 miles.
当大象感受到这些低噪声的一种
When elephants sense one of these low rumbles,
他们会停下 然后把有厚肉垫的脚
they halt, and press their heavily-padded
拍打到地面上
feet to the ground.
这种叫作蹄垫的肉垫 是一个大脂肪球
That padding, a huge ball of fat called a digital cushion,
最多可以伸展出
spreads out as much as 20
原面积的20%
percent.
象脚上许多的触觉接收器
Dozens of touch receptors in the elephant’s foot,
也叫帕西尼安小球
called Pacinian corpuscles, pick up
收集起地面的震动 并向大脑发出信号
these vibrations and send a signal to brain.
不过等一等 这到底是听觉还是触觉呢
But hold up, is that hearing or is it feeling? Well,
好吧 这两者之间的界线是十分模糊的
turns out the line between those two senses is pretty fuzzy.
科学家们认为 地面的震动
Scientists think ground vibrations also travel
同样可以通过大象的骨骼传播
through the elephant’s skeleton, all the
直至耳朵
way to the ear.
这就是触觉如何成为听觉的
That’s how feeling becomes hearing.
凯特琳在斯坦福大学医学系研究听觉
Caitlin O’Connell researches hearing atthe Stanford University School of Medicine.
在非洲纳米比亚的一系列实验中 她把扬声器埋在地里
In a series of experiments in Namibia, she buried speakers in the ground.
然后播放了大象的叫声 来看看会发生什么
Then she played common elephant calls, tosee what would happen.
当象群听到的警报来自地上的扬声器时
When this herd hears an alarm call played
这意味着危险就在不远处
from an above-ground speaker, it means danger
它们便会撤退
is close, they retreat.
若同样的警报传自地下 反应就慢多了
But when the same call is played underground, they react more slowly.
象群变得谨慎 编起队伍 但保持不动
They grow wary and close ranks — but stayput.
因为如果大象只是通过它们的脚接收讯息
When the elephants get the message through their feet only,
这表示着危险
it means the danger is far
还在远处
away.
甚至 大象的脚印
Even an elephant’s footsteps
也能向同伴传达有用的信息
transmit useful information about its size and whereabouts
例如它的大小和行踪
to other elephants.
所以 如果你知道怎样去听
So if you know how to listen,
奇妙美丽的陆地景观就可以用哼哼声表示
this dramatic landscape hums with signals, and a web of sound
声音编织成网 把整个社会联系在一起
holds a whole community together.
好奇流是供订阅的流媒体服务平台
Curiosity stream is a subscription streaming service
提供了来自各种制片人的
that offers documentaries and nonfiction
纪录片和文学字幕 包括好奇流的原创
titles from a variety of filmmakers, includingCuriosity Stream originals.
在我们的官网CuriosityStream.com/DeepLook您可以了解更多
You can learn more at CuriosityStream.com slash Deep Look,
在注册的过程中
and use the code Deep Look
请使用密码DeepLook
during the signup process.
这些大象位于加州 圣安地列斯附近的一家私人保护基地中
These elephants live in a private refuge nearSan Andreas, California,
在野外 非洲象每天要行走约18小时
In the wild, African elephants walk for roughly 18 hours a day —
很自然地 它们
that naturally wears
脚上的肉垫会被磨损
down their foot pads.
而在这里 每个月它们能享受
So here at the refuge, at least once a month,
至少一次的足部治疗
they get a pedicure.
所以 还等什么呢
So go ahead, pamper yourself.
快来订阅Deep Look吧
Subscribe to Deep Look.
每两周我们会上线全新有趣的内容
We’ve got new episodes every two weeks.
那么 下次再见!
See you next time!

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好奇流带我们探索大象交流方式之谜

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视频来源

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