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电灯改变夜晚 – 译学馆
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电灯改变夜晚

How Electric Light Changed the Night | Deep Look

就像我们吃的食物 呼吸的空气
Like the food we eat and the air we breathe,
映入眼中的光也会改变我们身体中的化学过程
the light that enters our eyes changes the very chemistry of our bodies.
不同种类的光对我们的影响有所不同
And different kinds of light affect us in different ways.
以太阳为例 其高能量强波让我们保持活跃与警觉
Take the sun. Its intense, high-energy waves keep us active and alert.
而黑暗会发信号通知我们的身体 产生褪黑激素帮助我们睡眠
Darkness signals our bodies to produce melatonin, a hormone that helps us sleep.
但我们现在不再那么依赖太阳光了
But we don’t rely on sunlight that much anymore.
随着不同类型光的使用 我们的身体也随之产生变化
And as we change the kinds of light we use, our bodies are changing too.
这方面的研究有很多
There are dozens of studies on this.
但来自宾州州立大学最近的一份研究显示
But one recent one out of Penn State showed
晚上使用电子阅读器的人
that people who used e-readers at night
第二天 不如阅读纸质书的人警觉
weren’t as alert the next day as those who read paper books the night before.
而睡眠本身——最本质的东西——已经发生了变化
And sleep itself — the very nature of it — has changed.
早期的文字记录显示 17世纪之前 至少在欧洲
Early texts reveal that before the 17th century, in Europe at least,
人们并不会连续睡八个小时
people didn’t sleep in eight hour blocks.
他们睡四个小时醒来 待一两个小时再回去睡
They’d wake up after four hours, stay awake for a quiet hour or two – then fall back asleep.
研究表明这才是我们的自然节律
And studies suggest that this is our natural rhythm.
没有人造光 我们就会回到旧有的睡眠习惯
Deprived of artificial light, we revert to these old patterns.
我们最早的照明对睡眠干扰不大
Our earliest illuminations didn’t mess with our sleep so much.
那时我们用营火和火把 之后是石灯
We used campfires and torches. Then stone lamps.
有时会把一条油性鱼或一只鸟穿上灯芯来照明
Sometimes people would just thread a wick through an oily fish or a bird.
17世纪到18世纪 大城市用煤气灯照明
Big cities glowed under gas lamps in the 17- and 1800s.
但这些灯光中的橙光 黄光和红光都是长波光
But the oranges, yellows and reds of those lights have long wavelengths,
不会对分泌褪黑激素产生很大影响
which don’t interfere much with melatonin production.
但19世纪电灯的使用使情况发生了很大的改变
The big change came in the 1900s with electric light,
从白炽灯 霓虹灯到LED灯
from incandescent and neon to LED.
这些灯光像太阳光一样——会抑制褪黑激素分泌
These lights — like the sun — can suppress melatonin.
发出信号使我们的大脑保持活跃
So they signal our brains to be active.
以前分段式的睡眠习惯已经消失
Our segmented nights have disappeared.
减少睡眠时间?大家都知道这可不是好事儿
Getting less sleep? Everyone knows that’s a bad thing.
情况要复杂的多:
But this is about more than that:
这是一种特殊精神状态的丧失
it’s a loss of a distinct mental state,
而这种精神状态是一种我们过去常在午夜“占据”的临界区
a sort of liminal zone that we used to occupy in the middle of each night.
在这段时间 我们的大脑充满了催乳激素
During this time our brains were flooded with prolactin,
即一种哺乳期母亲和性爱后的爱人分泌的放松激素
the relaxation hormone enjoyed by breastfeeding mothers and post-coital lovers.
这个时候 可以安静地阅读 写作 抽烟 做爱 或仅仅是冥想
It was a time to read quietly, write, smoke, have sex, or just think.
今天 在我们这个数字化的 生产高速发展的社会里
Today, in our digital, relentlessly productive society,
这件事看起来很神奇 不是吗?
it seems almost magical, doesn’t it?
有别于一天中其他的时间 既不是睡眠状态 也非清醒状态
A time of day set apart — not quite asleep, not quite awake —
处于似梦又醒 似暗又明的状态中
hovering somewhere between dreams and wakefulness, darkness and light.

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视频概述

光照如何影响睡眠&一种不同于八小时睡眠模式的古代睡眠模式

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mllam3nKTv4

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