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杜比正在用“读心术”与好莱坞对抗 – 译学馆
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杜比正在用“读心术”与好莱坞对抗

How Dolby is measuring human emotions to hack Hollywood

测量观影者对影片的反应
Measuring people’s responses to entertainment has,
在过去是技术很低的
in the past, been pretty low-tech.
观影者可能回答问卷调查
People might answer a survey,
点赞 或在手机应用上给五星好评
give thumbs up, or five stars in an app,
或只是在观看的时候描述感受
or simply describe how they felt while they were watching something.
但现在 科学家可以利用各种各样的生物传感器
But now, scientists have access to a variety of biosensors
可以将观影者对电影和电视节目的反应分毫不差地反馈给科学家
that can tell them exactly how people are responding to movies and TV shows,
什么情节让他们心跳加快 或是什么让他们脸色发红
what gets their hearts pumping, or what makes their faces flush.
这些生理学数据有可能
And this physiological data has the potential
改变未来电影的制作方式
to change how movies are made in the future.
事实上 现在就在改变
In fact, it’s doing that right now.
节目名:下一站 作者:劳伦古德 (Lauren Goode)
Next level with Lauren Goode.
杜比实验室成立于1965年
Dolby Labs has been around since 1965.
对大多数人来说
For most people,
这家公司的同义词就是
the company is synonymous with that label you see on movies
电影中“声音已重置”的标签
that tells you the sound has been remastered,
或“颜色已增强”的标签
or the color has been enhanced.
但在杜比的旧金山总部里
But inside its headquarters in San Francisco,
这家公司还在做一个鲜为人知的项目:
Dolby has been working at a lesser-known project:
观察正在看电影的人
to watch people while they’re watching movies.
杜比的科学家们想要知道
The scientists of Dolby want to know
人们是否有认知投入 或感到紧张 或激动
whether people are cognitively involved, or stressed, or aroused.
他们想用这些生物学数据让他们的技术大卖
And they want this biophysical data to better sell their technology.
这个想法是 杜比可以告诉好莱坞合伙人
The idea being that Dolby can show its Hollywood partners
某种颜色 或环绕声
that a certain color, or surround sound,
甚至是高动态范围
or even high dynamic range
能引起人们更强的反应
will elicit a stronger response from people.
制作《头脑特工队》的皮克斯公司的一位主要的影像科学家
One of the lead image scientists from Pixar in charge of Inside Out,
他说在《头脑特工队》中 婴儿出生时
he says when the baby’s born in Inside Out,
你会看到屏幕上散布着白光
what you get is a diffused white screen.
我们想表达的是疼痛
What we wanted there was pain.
我们想要观众感受到生理上的疼痛
We would wanna people to feel physiological pain,
因为孩子出生时就是这样
because that’s what happens when a baby’s born.
因此 我们可以用这样的方式
And so, it’s this way of now thinking about
引起观众的生理反应
the physiological response is part of what we can create.
在色彩空间 我们可以利用多感官协作来营造生理反应
In the color space, we can create that in this multi-sensory space.
对创作者而言 这是极有力的工具
And that’s really powerful to the creators.
这位是杜比的首席科学家波佩·克莱姆
That’s Dolby’s chief scientist Poppy Crum.
她是一位神经生理学家
She’s a neurophysiologist who, on any given day,
每天对自愿受试者进行15至20次实验
is conducting 15 to 20 experiments with willing subjects.
我很好奇这些生物传感器给波佩及其团队反馈的信息
I was curious to hear what these biosensors are telling Poppy and her team,
所以决定亲自试一试这些传感器
so I decided to try on the sensors myself.
这些奇妙的设备中有一个是EEG
One of the beauties of this particular device, so again,
EEG表示脑电图
it’s an EEG which stands for electroencephalogram
它能让我们通过头皮测量
It lets us measure small changes
检测到从大脑发出的电信号的微小变化
in the electrical signals from your brain through your scalp.
我是在“母体”里面吗? 这是什么?
Am I in the matrix yet? And what’s this?
还有一些其他的传感器要放在你身上
These are a few other sensors that we’re going to put on you.
其中一个将测量你的心跳
One of these is going to measure your heart rate.
另一个传感器是一个测谎仪
Another one of the sensors is a lie detector.
在你的左边 是你的体温图
And off to your left, that’s actually your thermal image.
我在出汗 哦 腋下出汗了
I’m sweating. Oh, armpits sweat.
我穿戴的传感器
The data that’s popping up on the screen right now
传送数据显示到屏幕上
from the sensors I’m wearing.
这些数据告诉了你什么?
What is that telling you?
我们刚刚已经增强了其中的一些频道
So what we’ve done is we’re just amplifying some of those channels.
这是每个电极收集的原始脑电图信号
And this is your raw EEG signal from each of those electrodes.
你可以看见你的电流性皮肤反应 这是你的心率
Here you have your GSR response. And here’s your heart rate.
除了火焰 还有什么
So what are the kinds of things that
会产生这个很尖的峰状波形?
would cause, aside from fire, like this pretty serious spike?
体育比赛 这是很好的例子
Sports matches, those are great examples where,
比如有预感要罚点球的时候
you know, if there’s something like a penalty kick where there’s anticipation,
或是让你惊喜令人激动的事
or things that surprise you, things that are rousing.
所以实际上你能辨别人们什么时候兴奋?
So you can actually tell when people are aroused?
没错
Absolutely.
你在性场景测试过吗?
Do you test it on sex scenes?
-哦 没有(笑)-好的
-Oh, no.-Ok.
当我们用“激情”这个词时
So when we use the word arousal,
我通常更喜欢用“兴奋”这个词
I’d like to use the word excitement typically.
也许我过早下结论了 好吧
Maybe I was jumping to conclusion, okay.
是的 所以小心一点(笑)
Yeah, so be careful, there…there…
这个生物物理实验室自2012年就存在于杜比了
These biophysical labs have existed at Dolby since 2012.
但在过去几年中
But over the past couple of years,
波佩及其团队在这个项目上取得大成果
Poppy and her team have really ramped up the program.
部分是因为
This is partly due to the fact that
这种传感器现在比较容易获得
these kinds of sensors are readily available now.
但另一部分原因还有
But it’s also due to the fact that there are now
现在显示器足够明亮 能触发这些反应
displays bright enough to trigger these kinds of reactions.
在一些实验中 团队使用的亮度设备
In some cases, the team is using devices that get up to
产生每平方米20000坎的亮度
20,000 candelas per square meter in terms of brightness.
这往往会对人体产生意外的影响
And that can have a surprising impact on the human body.
我们已经发现 如果给观看者呈现火焰
We have discovered that if you present flame,
一幅足够逼真的火焰图片
a picture of flame realistically enough,
你的身体真的会变热
Your body actually starts to flush.
你的身体在亿万年的演变中已经调整并适应了
Your body is just over the eons has adjusted and adapted
“看见火焰 就认为热”的反应
such that when it sees flame, it assumes hot.
这种发现是帮助我们
That kind of insight is fundamental in helping us
改进科技的基础 这种科技
shape the technologies that drive the stories
促进了我们都爱看的故事的产生
that you and I love to go to.
杜比不是第一个研究人类情绪
Dolby is hardly the first entertainment focused company
的娱乐公司
to study human emotions.
广泛地说
Broadly speaking,
这种有效的手段已经被研究了几十年
this kind of effective computing has been studied for decades.
但业内专家认为 它正被越来越广泛地用于娱乐产业
But industry experts say, it’s becoming much more common in entertainment.
近年来 像Netflix和Hulu等公司
In recent years, companies like Netflix and Hulu
已经使用了眼动仪来更好地理解
have used eye trackers to better understand
人们对它们的应用界面是如何反应的
how people are reacting to their app interfaces.
这种生物物理学的体验正变得越来越重要
These types of biophysical experiences are becoming more and more important.
我们需要理解专注某事时
We need to understand experiences about engagement:
你如何与你现在的体验在情绪上相联系
how you’re emotionally connected to the experience you’re having,
以及我们的科技如何帮我们改善体验
and how our technologies can help us enhance that,
并尽可能地丰富体验
enrich it as much as possible.
当然 所有这些生物传感跟踪都可能引发伦理问题
Of course, all of this bio-sensory tracking could raise questions
即可能有人会用更具操纵性的方式利用这些数据
around the ethics of potentially using the data in a more manipulative way.
如果制片人或音效师知道
If filmmakers or sound producers know that
他们可以触发观影者情绪上的反应
they can trigger an emotional response,
那么这些工具是不是可能被滥用?
then isn’t it possible for those tools to be abused?
或者 假设一个广告商用这些工具来卖给你他的产品
Or, say an advertiser uses these tools to sell you something,
就像这个雷克萨斯的广告
like this Lexus ad,
除了引擎轰鸣声之外没有更多的信息
which offers nothing but the sound of an engine revving,
顺便说一句 这是杜比调音的
and which, by the way, was mixed by Dolby.
但最终 在娱乐方面
But ultimately, when it comes to entertainment,
这可以说就是你想要的了
that’s sort of what you want.
你将拥有一次刺激的感官体验
You’re going for an intensified human experience.
我们技术的核心 我们公司的存在
Core of our technology, and the existence of our company
都建立在对人类体验的理解之上
has always been an understanding of human experience.
以及我们如何理解我们所体验的
And how can we take what we experience,
我们的大脑是如何感知世界的
how our brain experiences world,
我们的身体是如何体验的
how our body’s experiencing
实际上用这些东西来开发智能科技
really use that to build intelligent technologies.
基本上 我们比过去的任何时代都更依赖于视频
Basically, we’re more immersed in video than ever before,
无论是巨大的荧屏上 或是电视机屏幕
whether it’s on a giant movie, or TV screen,
或是我们相对较小的手机屏幕
or our relatively small smartphones,
甚至就在我们的脸上 比如VR(虚拟现实)眼镜
or even right on our faces, like with VR headsets.
杜比的科学家 还有这个产业中的许多其他人
And Dolby scientists, along with many others in the industry,
都想知道视频如何让我们产生感受
want to know how that’s going to make us all feel,
特别是如果娱乐变得
especially if entertainment becomes indistinguishable
与我们身边的现实难以区分的时候
from the realities around us.
所以下次看电影或电视节目时 你感觉脸红
So the next time you feel your face flush,
或是心跳加快
or your heart race,
或是腋下出汗
or your armpit sweat during a movie or TV show,
你可能不是唯一这样反应的人
you might not be the only one.
事实上 视频可能已经被设计好
In fact, it might have been enhanced
来精准触发这种反应
to trigger exactly that sort of reaction.
这必定是娱乐产业的未来
This is definitely the future of entertainment.
我最近读了莎士比亚的许多书
I’ve been reading a lot about sharks lately.
哇!
Whoa!

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视频概述

杜比的生物反应传感器科技得到了很大的突破,可以在观影的同时运用神奇的“读心术”读取观影者的情绪,这项神奇的技术甚至可以改变娱乐产业。

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

审核员

审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYTT-0A8QIE

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