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空调的工作原理

How does your AIR CONDITIONER work ?

空调能在炎炎夏日给你带来
Air conditioners give you much-needed thermal comfort
急需的清凉舒适
during a scorching summer.
更明确来说
More specifically,
空调能使室温保持在最佳水平
air conditioners help to maintain the room temperature at an optimal level.
它们也能帮助去除室内空气中的灰尘
They also help to remove airborne particles
以及湿气
and humidity from the room.
我们来看看空调装置的工作方式
Let’s find out how these devices work.
感谢DANFOSS对本视频的支持
We want to thank DANFOSS for their support in the production of this video.
观看Learning.Danfoss.com网站的免费课程
You can increase your knowledge about cooling systems
你可以了解到关于制冷系统的知识
by accessing the free e-lessons available at Learning.Danfoss.com.
我们先从简单的部分开始着手
Let’s start with a very simple approach
了解空调的运作原理
to understanding the functioning of an air conditioner.
一台空调有两个连接的螺旋管
An air conditioner has two connected coils
螺旋管里装有不断流动的制冷液
with continuous flowing refrigerant fluid inside them.
室内的螺旋管叫做蒸发器
The coil inside the room is called the evaporator.
室外的螺旋管叫做冷凝器
And the coil outside the room is called the condenser.
空调运作的基本原理很简单:
The fundamental principle of the air conditioner is simple:
只需要保持蒸发器冷却
Just keep the evaporator cold,
更具体地说 比室温更加冷
more specifically colder than the room temperature,
保持冷凝器加热
and the condenser hot,
更具体地说 比周围更热
more specifically hotter than the surroundings.
有了这些条件
With these conditions,
不断流动的液体能显著地吸收室内的热量
the continuously flowing fluid will obviously absorb the heat from the room
把热量排出至周围环境
and eject it out to the surroundings.
这就是空调运作的基本原理
This is the fundamental rule of an air conditioner.
我们来了解一下这个规则是怎么在实践中应用的
Let’s see how this rule is implemented in practice.
为了完成这个目的
To achieve this objective,
空调里面需要再多两个部件
2 more components are needed inside your air conditioner:
一个压缩机和一个膨胀阀
A compressor and an expansion valve.
正如你大概能猜到的
As you can probably guess,
压缩机为制冷剂增压
the compressor increases the pressure of the refrigerant.
这是一个往复式压缩机的工作示例
Here you can see a working example of a reciprocating-type compressor.
压缩机将制冷剂压缩成气态
The compressor handles the refrigerant in its gas state
以使在压缩空气的过程中
so that as it compresses the gas,
温度会随着压力升高
the temperature rises along with the pressure.
压缩机出口的温度
The temperature at the compressor outlet
将远高于室外空气温度
will be far higher than the atmosphere temperature.
因此如果气态制冷剂流经冷凝器热交换器
Therefore, if you pass this hot gas through the condenser heat exchanger,
热量就会很容易地排出
you can easily eject the heat.
冷凝器单元里的风机也对此过程有帮助
A fan in the condenser unit makes this task easier.
在热排放阶段
During this heat ejection phase,
气体被冷凝成液体
the gas gets condensed to a liquid.
膨胀阀被安装在冷凝器出口
And the expansion valve is fitted at the exit of the condenser.
设置膨胀阀的目的
The purpose of the expansion valve
是限制制冷剂的流动
is to restrict the refrigerant flow,
从而减少液体的压力
thus reducing the pressure of the fluid.
接下来就是主要的部分
Here comes the main trick.
你可能意识到 通过减少液体周围的压力
You might be aware that it is possible to boil a liquid
就有可能使液体沸腾
just by reducing the pressure around it.
这种现象也出现在膨胀阀里
This phenomenon happens inside the expansion valve as well.
当压力下降
As the pressure drops,
一部分制冷剂液体就会被蒸发
one part of the refrigerant liquid is evaperated.
然而 为了使蒸发发生
However, for this evaporation to happen,
必须有一些能量供给
some energy should be supplied to it.
这些能量来自于制冷剂内
This energy comes from within the refrigerant.
所以 制冷剂温度会下降
So its temperature drops.
这就是空调内制冷剂的生成方式
This is how the cold refrigerant is produced inside the air conditioner.
低温制冷剂应该
This low-temperature refrigerant
比室温低
should be at a temperature lower than the room temperature.
所以 室内空气通过蒸发器螺旋管后
So by passing the room’s air over the evaporator coil,
室温就会下降
the room temperature will drop.
制冷剂在热吸收过程中转换成蒸汽
The refrigerant gets converted to vapor during this heat absorption process.
你可能听过一个叫与空调相关的词即“冷冻吨”
You might’ve heard the term called ‘ton’ associated with the air conditioners.
这个词代表蒸发器
The ‘ton’ represents how much heat
从室内吸收热量的量
the evaporator can absorb from the room.
简单来说
In simple words,
它代表空调的除热能力
it represents the air conditioner’s heat-removal capability.
讲完了冷冻吨
In this way,
我们就完成了对空调基本原理的解释
we have achieved the fundamental rule of an air conditioner.
在室内的螺旋管里的
The temperature is lower than the room temperature in the coil
温度比气温低
inside the room.
在室外螺旋管的温度
And the temperature is more than the atmosphere temperature in the coil
比大气温度高
outside the room.
在一台真实的空调里
In an actual air conditioner,
压缩机位于冷凝器附近
the compressor sits near to the condenser,
膨胀阀位于蒸发器附近
and the expansion valve sits near to the evaporator.
这里有一些设计上的实际问题
There are some practical issues with this design.
靠近蒸发器螺旋管的地方
Near to the evaporator coils,
空气温度应该很低
the air temperature would be quite low.
这就致使蒸发器旋管的水冷凝
This would lead to water condensation on the evaporator coils.
这就是为何我们需要管子来避免水冷凝
That’s why we need a pipe to remove this water condensate.
现代空调使用涡旋式压缩机
Modern air conditioners use scroll compressors
而不是往复式压缩机
instead of the reciprocating type.
你可以从此动画中看到压缩机的工作模式
You can see how the compression process happens from this animation.
压缩机悄无声息地运转 且可以很好地控制速度
They are silent and they have good speed-control.
你知道在装置各自负载的情况下
Do you know how your air conditioner is able to maintain
空调怎样能够保持几乎平稳的室温吗?
an almost steady room temperature in respective workload?
现代空调使用了变速电机技术
Modern air conditioners use a variable-speed motor technology,
被称作“变频技术”
called ‘inverter technology’,
这种技术能更好地控制温度
for better temperature control.
只需通过调节电机速度
Just by adjusting the motor speed,
压缩机速度 制冷剂流动速率
the compressor speed, the refrigerant flow rate,
就能精确地调控制冷能力
and the cooling capacity can be controlled accurately.
这就出现了一个对于空调的设计有趣挑战
Here comes an interesting design challenge for the air conditioner.
空调的压缩机
The compressor of an air conditioner
被设计成只处理蒸汽
is designed to handle only vapor,
一小部分液体就能影响空调性能
and the small fraction of the liquid content can affect its performance
并破坏压缩机
and damage the compressor.
基于这些原因
For these reasons,
人们希望蒸发器把
it is desired that the evaporator convert
所有液体转换成蒸汽
all of the liquid to vapor,
甚至在转换之后
and even increase the temperature of the vapor
将蒸汽温度增加五到八摄氏度
by 5 to 8 degrees celsius after the conversion.
它要怎样确保
How does it make sure that the fluid
进入压缩机的液体是纯蒸汽呢?
which enters the compressor is purely vapor?
这种情况是由一种特殊的膨胀阀维持的
This condition is maintained by a special kind of expansion valve
被称作 “调温膨胀阀”
called a ‘thermostatic expansion valve’.
缩写是TXV
The abbreviation is TXV.
TXV与我们之前见过的膨胀阀类似
The TXV is similar to the expansion valve we saw earlier.
但在这里 一个灯泡的温度就能控制指针
But here, the temperature of a bulb controls the needle.
灯泡与蒸发器出口相连
The bulb is connected to the evaporator exit,
灯泡里的制冷剂
the refrigerant inside the bulb
通过隔板与主制冷系统分离
is separated from the main refrigeration cycle by a diaphragm.
当灯泡发热
When the bulb is hot,
灯泡里的制冷剂会被蒸发
the refrigerant inside it will be evaporated
指针会向下移动
and the needle will move down.
众所周知 制冷剂的突然变冷
We know the sudden cooling of the refrigerant
是在其通过膨胀阀时
is achieved across the expansion valve
在阀门开度限制的帮助下实现的
with the help of the restriction.
阀门越窄
The narrower the restriction,
排出的制冷剂就越冷
the cooler the outlet refrigerant will be.
我们来考虑一下压缩机的不好的状况
Let’s consider a bad situation for the compressor.
假如蒸发器温度并不是很低
Assume the evaporator temperature is not so low,
蒸发器吸收很少的热量
so the evaporator absorbs very low heat,
蒸发器里所有的液体将不会转换成蒸汽
and all the liquid in it will not convert to vapor.
因而 流向压缩机的制冷剂
Thus the refrigerant which leaves for the compressor
也不会被过多加热
will not be super heated.
在蒸发器出口的低温
This low temperature at the evaporator exit
将立刻被灯泡感应
will immediately be sensed by the bulb,
致使指针向上移动
and will cause the needle to move upwards
从而使得阀门变窄
and make the restriction narrower.
更窄的阀门会造成温度骤降
The narrower restriction causes a good temperature drop.
从而蒸发器将接受到更冷的液体
Thus the evaporator will receive much cooler fluid
并能吸收大量热量
and it can absorb a great amount of heat.
这就确保了所有液体会被转换成蒸汽
This will make sure that all the liquid will be converted to vapor.
这样一来 想让压缩机仅处理蒸汽的难题
Thus the complex task of having a vapor-only condition
便可通过TXV自动维持
that the compressor in that is automatically maintained by the TXV.
我们来澄清一个眼下的误解
Let us clear up a common misconception at this stage.
TXVs并不控制室温
TXVs do not control the room temperature.
它们只确保压缩机接受纯蒸汽形式的制冷剂
They just make sure that the compressor receives the refrigerant in pure vapor form.
室温下的制冷剂和流速
The refrigerant and flow rate in the room temperature
是被压缩机的速度控制的
are controlled by the speed of the compressor.
正因它的简易性和高效性
Due to their simplicity and efficiency,
TXVs被广泛用于工业和生活领域
TXVs are widely used in the industrial and domestic applications.
想要了解TXVs和数百个其他的制冷话题
To learn about TXVs and hundreds of other cooling topics,
请来Danfoss-learning
please check out Danfoss-learning,
一个由DANFOSS提供的免费培训和质检中心
a free training and certification hub brought to you by DANFOSS.
访问Learning.Danfoss.com
Visit Learning.Danfoss.com,
或点击视频类型里的链接
or click the link in the video description.
感谢收看!
Thank you!

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译制信息
视频概述

生动而全面地了解空调的工作原理

听录译者

拟态

翻译译者

山羊堡堡

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVLhrLTF878

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