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股票市场是如何运作的? – 译学馆
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股票市场是如何运作的?

How does the stock market work? - Oliver Elfenbaum

投资更应像是看着油漆变干或小草变绿 若你想体验心跳的感觉 拿800美元去拉斯维加斯吧 —保罗•塞缪尔
在17世纪 荷兰东印度公司
In the 1600s the Dutch East India Company
雇佣了数百艘船只
employed hundreds of ships
在全球范围内买卖黄金 瓷器 香料和丝绸
to trade gold, porcelain, spices and silks around the globe.
但是经营这个庞大业务的成本并不低
But running this massive operation wasn’t cheap.
为了资助他们昂贵的航海出行
In order to fund their expensive voyages,
该公司转而求助于普通民众
the company turned to private citizens–
即那些能够出资支持航行
individuals who could invest money to support the trip
以换取一份船队利润的个人
in exchange for a share of the ship’s profits.
这种做法使该公司得以负担规模更大的航行
This practice allowed the company to afford even grander voyages
从而增加公司自身
increasing profits for both themselves
与其精明的投资者的收益
and their savvy investors.
通过在欧洲大陆上遍布的咖啡馆
Selling these shares in coffee houses
及港口兜售这些股份
and shipping ports across the continent,
荷兰东印度公司不知不觉间创造了
the Dutch East India Company unknowingly invented
世界首个股票市场
the world’s first stock market.
自那以后 公司便一直从有意愿的投资者手中
Since then, companies have been collecting funds
募集资金来支撑各种业务
from willing investors to support all kinds of businesses.
如今 股票市场催生了很多学派 职业
And today, the stock market has schools, careers
甚至还出现了致力于理解它的完整的电视频道
and even whole television channels dedicated to understanding it.
但现在的股票市场明显比它的前身复杂得多
But the modern stock market is significantly more complicated than its original incarnation.
那么现在的公司和投资者是如何运作市场的呢
So how do companies and investorsuse the market today?
想象有一个全新的咖啡公司
Let’s imagine a new coffee company
决定首次上市
that decides to launch on the market.
首先 公司会向大股东推销自己
First, the company will advertise itselfto big investors.
如果大股东认为这公司不错
If they think the company is a good idea,
他们就会尝试投入第一桶金
they get the first crack at investing,
然后赞助这个公司的首次公开募股 简称 IPO
and then sponsor the company’s initial public offering, or IPO.
公司由此正式迈进公开市场
This launches the company onto theofficial public market,
公开市场中的任何公司或个人
where any company or individual who
若相信这个公司能够盈利
believes the business could be profitable
都可能会购买股票
might buy a stock.
购买股票使那些投资者成为该公司的部分所有者
Buying stocks makes those investorspartial owners in the business.
他们的投资会帮助公司成长壮大
Their investment helps the company to grow
并且随着公司发展得越来越成功
and as it becomes more successful,
更多的买家将会发现它的潜力并开始购买股票
more buyers may see potential and start buying stocks.
随着那些股票需求的增长
As demand for those stocks increases,
它们的价格也会随之上涨 从而增加潜在买家的成本
so does their price, increasing the cost for prospective buyers,
使人们已持有的公司股票得到升值
and raising the value of the company’sstocks people already own.
这部分增加的收益能为公司的新举措提供资金
For the company, this increased interest helpsfund new initiatives,
也能以展示他们公司赢得多少投资者青睐的方式
and also boosts its overall market value
来拔高公司的总市值
by showing how many people are willing to invest in their idea.
然而 若因为某种原因 公司的盈利能力似乎开始走低
However, if for some reason the company starts to seem less profitable,
也可能会出现相反的情况
the reverse can also happen.
若投资者认为 他们手中股票的价格会下跌
If investors think their stock value is going to decline,
他们就会售出手中的股票
they’ll sell their stocks
以期在公司损失更多价值之前赚一笔
with the hopes of making a profit before the company loses more value.
随着股票被抛售和股票需求的下降
As stocks are sold and demand for the stock goes down,
股票价格会下跌 公司的市值也会随之缩水
the stock price falls, and with it, the company’s market value.
这会给投资者带来巨大的损失
This can leave investors with big losses–
除非公司再次看起来有利可图
unless the company starts to look profitable again.
这跷跷板似的供给和需求机制
This see-saw of supply and demand
是在很多因素的作用下形成的
is influenced by many factors.
公司深受诸多不可避免的市场力量的影响
Companies are under the unavoidableinfluence of market forces–
比如 原料价格的波动
such as the fluctuating price of materials,
生产技术的转变 和劳动力的转移成本
changes in production technology, and the shifting costs of labor.
投资者也可能会担忧公司领导层的变换 糟糕的名声
Investors may be worried aboutchanges in leadership, bad publicity,
或者如新法律和贸易政策等更宏观的因素
or larger factors like new laws and trade policies
当然了
And of course,
大量投资者只是想要脱手有价值的股票
plenty of investors are simply ready to sell valuable stocks
和追求个人的收益
and pursue personal interests.
所有这些可变因素引发了市场日复一日的波动
All these variables cause day-to-day noisein the market,
使得公司价值看起来时高时低
which can make companies appear moreor less successful.
在股票市场
And in the stock market,
预期价格下跌通常会导致投资者的流失
appearing to lose value often leads to losing investors,
相应地 (也会导致股票)失去实际价值
and in turn, losing actual value.
人们对股市的信心有能力引爆
Human confidence in the market has thepower to trigger
从经济繁荣到金融危机的一切
everything from economic boomsto financial crises.
这项难以追踪的可变因素
And this difficult-to-track variable
也是众多专业人士更加提倡可靠的长期投资
is why most professionals promotereliable long term investing
而不提倡挣快钱的原因
over trying to make quick cash.
然而 专家不断地构建工具
However, experts are constantly building tools
来努力提高他们
in efforts to increase their chances of success
在这个深不可测的体系中大赚一笔的可能性
in this highly unpredicatable system.
但股票市场并不仅仅是为权贵服务的
But the stock market is not just for the rich and powerful.
随着互联网的出现
With the dawn of the Internet,
投资者每天都可以
every day investors can buy stocks
采用很多与大股东完全相同的方法来购买股票
in many of the exact same ways a large investor would.
当更多的人涌进来自学这个复杂的体系
And as more people educate themselvesabout this complex system
他们也将能够交易股票
they too can trade stocks,
支持他们信任的企业
support the businesses they believe in,
追求他们的财务目标
and pursue their financial goals.
首先要做的就是去投资
The first step is getting invested.

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视频概述

股票市场的起源 运作流程和现况

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Estherrr

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7HKvqRI_Bo

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