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为什么罗夏墨迹试验能测验心理健康程度? – 译学馆
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为什么罗夏墨迹试验能测验心理健康程度?

How does the Rorschach inkblot test work? - Damion Searls

实验非常简单 简单到无论在哪儿
都能引起人们的兴趣和质疑——赫尔曼•罗夏
看看这张图片
Take a look at this image.
这可能是什么?
What might this be?
是可怕的怪物?
A frightening monster?
两只友好的熊?
Two friendly bears?
或者别的什么?
Or something else entirely?
近一个世纪以来 像这样的十张墨迹图
For nearly a century, ten inkblots like these have been used
被用于一种近乎神秘的人格测试
as what seems like an almostmystical personality test.
长期为心理学家及其病人所信赖
Long kept confidential for psychologistsand their patients,
据说这些神秘图像勾勒出了 一个人的思维方式
the mysterious images were said to draw out the workings of a person’s mind.
但墨迹能告诉我们什么
But what can inkblots really tell us,
这个测试是如何进行的?
and how does this test work?
20世纪初由瑞士精神病学家赫尔曼•罗夏发明的
Invented in the early 20th centuryby Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach,
“罗夏测试”实际上
the Rorschach Test is actually less
并不是关于我们所看到的具体事物的
about the specific things we see,
而是更多地涉及我们感知方面的一般方法
and more about our general approachto perception.
作为一名业余艺术家
As an amateur artist
赫尔曼对人与人之间不同的视觉感知很着迷
Hermann was fascinated by how visual perception varies from person to person.
他把这种兴趣带到了医学院
He carried this interest tomedical school,
在那里他了解到我们所有的感官都是紧密相连的
where he learned all our sensesare deeply connected.
他了解到我们的感知过程
He studied how our process
是如何不仅记录感官输入
of perception doesn’t just register sensory inputs,
还记录感知输出的
but transforms them.
当他开始在瑞士东部的
And when he started working
一家精神病院工作时
at a mental hospital in eastern Switzerland,
他着手设计了一系列令人费解的图像
he began designing a seriesof puzzling images
以获得对这个神秘过程的重新认识
to gain new insight into thisenigmatic process.
用他的墨迹画
Using his inkblot paintings,
罗夏开始用同样的问题
Rorschach began quizzing hundredsof healthy subjects
询问数百名健康受试者和精神病患者:
and psychiatric patients withthe same question:
这可能是什么
what might this be?
然而 对罗夏来说
However,it wasn’t what the
最重要的不是被试者们看到的
test subjects saw that was most important to Rorschach,
而是他们是如何完成这项任务的
but rather, how they approached the task.
他们关注或忽略了图像的哪些部分?
Which parts of the image did theyfocus on or ignore?
他们看到图像移动了吗?
Did they see the image moving?
墨迹上的颜色是帮助他们给出更好的答案
Did the color on some inkblots help themgive better answers,
还是分散他们的注意力 使他们不知所措呢
or distract and overwhelm them?
他开发了一个系统来编码人们的反应
He developed a system to codepeople’s responses,
将泛泛的解释减至几个可管理的数字
reducing the wide range of interpretationsto a few manageable numbers.
现在他有了经检验的方法来量化各种试验者:
Now he had empirical measures to quantify all kinds of test takers:
即富有创造性和想象力的 细节导向的大画面感知器
the creative and imaginative, the detail-oriented, thebig-picture perceivers,
灵活的参与者能够适应他们的方法
and flexible participants ableto adapt their approach.
有些人会被骗 为多个墨迹提供相同的答案
Some people would get stuck, offering the same answer for multiple blots.
其他人给出了不同寻常和愉快的描述
Others gave unusual anddelightful descriptions.
人们的反应如同墨迹 各式各样都有
Responses were as varied as the inkblots,
这提供了不同类型的感知问题——
which offered different kinds ofperceptual problems–
有些比另一些容易解释
some easier to interpret than others.
但是 通过分析接受测验者的整体方法
But analyzing the test-taker’soverall approach
他们对自己的心理有了真正的了解
yielded real insights intotheir psychology.
随着罗夏测试越来越多的人
And as Rorschach tested moreand more people,
图案开始堆积起来
patterns began to pile up.
性格相同的健康受试者
Healthy subjects with the samepersonalities
经常采取非常相似的方法
often took remarkably similar approaches.
患有同样精神疾病的病人
Patients suffering from the samemental illnesses
也执行类似的操作 使测试成为可靠的诊断工具
also performed similarly, making the test a reliablediagnostic tool.
这甚至可以诊断出
It could even diagnose some conditions
很难用其他适用方法来确定的一些情况
difficult to pinpoint with otheravailable methods.
1921年 罗夏发表了他的编码系统
In 1921, Rorschach published his coding system
除了这十张墨迹图以外
alongside the ten blots he felt
他还发现人们感知方式上最细微的差别
gave the most nuanced picture of people’s perceptual approach.
在接下来的几十年里
Over the next several decades,
这项测试在世界各国广泛流行
the test became wildly popular in countries around the world.
到20世纪60年代
By the 1960s,
仅在美国 它就被正式运用了数百万次
it had been officially administered millions of times in the U.S. alone.
不幸的是 发布测试后不到一年
Unfortunately,less than a year afterpublishing the test,
赫尔曼•罗夏就突然去世了
Hermann Rorschach had died suddenly.
没有了发明者让它步入正轨
Without its inventor to keep it on track,
他有条不紊收集的支持这项测试的这么多数据
the test he had methodically gatheredso much data to support
开始被用于各种推测方法
began to be used in all sortsof speculative ways.
研究人员对纳粹战犯进行了测试
Researchers gave the testto Nazi war criminals,
希望能解开大屠杀的心理根源
hoping to unlock the psychological rootsof mass murder.
人类学家将这些图像展示给偏远社区
Anthropologists showed the images toremote communities
作为一种普遍的人格测试
as a sort of universal personality test.
雇主根据简化的解码图表做出有偏见的雇用决定
Employers made prejudiced hiring decisionsbased on reductive decoding charts.
当测试离开诊所进入流行文化
As the test left clinics and enteredpopular culture
它在医疗专业人士中的声誉骤降
its reputation among medicalprofessionals plummeted,
这些墨迹开始从临床应用中消失
and the blots began to fallout of clinical use.
如今 这项测试仍有争议
Today,the test is still controversial,
许多人认为它已经被证明是不正确的
and many people assumeit has been disproven.
但是 2013年对罗夏所有现有研究的大规模审查表明
But a massive 2013 review of all theexisting Rorschach research
如果使用得当 该测试将产生有效的结果
showed that when administered properlythe test yields valid results,
有助于诊断精神疾病
which can help diagnose mental illness
或完善患者的心理状况
or round out a patient’spsychological profile.
这很难成为人类思维的独立钥匙——
It’s hardly a stand-alone keyto the human mind–
没有试验能够做到
no test is.
但其视觉方法及缺乏唯一正确答案(的特点)
But its visual approach and lackof any single right answer
继续帮助心理学家描绘出
continue to help psychologists painta more nuanced picture
人们如何看待世界的 更加微妙的图景
of how people see the world.
使我们离理解自己看法背后的模式更近了一步
Bringing us one step closer to understanding the patterns behind our perceptions.

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视频概述

没有任何一个实验能完全解读人性,但却是我们离理解我们看法背后的模式更近一步。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

甪里

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYi19-Vx6go

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