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逆反心理的原理 – 译学馆
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逆反心理的原理

How Does Reverse Psychology Work?

[音乐] 嘿
[♪ INTRO] Hey,
你知道所有那些你需要去做的家庭杂务吗?
you know all those chores that you probably have to do?
洗盘子 洗衣服 用吸尘器清扫
Dishes,laundry, vacuuming?
是的它们都不重要
Yeah, they’re not important.
你大概需要忘记它们
You should probably just forget about them.
我不知道你现在是否真的感到更有动力了
I don’t know if you actually feel any more motivated now…
但逆反心理的概念是
but reverse psychology is the idea
如果你希望某人做某事
that you can persuade someone to do something
就告诉他别去做这件事
by telling them not to do it.
它似乎看起来只在卡通中有效
It might seem like something that only works in cartoons,
像一个写着“不要按”的红色按钮
like a big red button that says “DO NOT PUSH.”
但是研究者研究逆反心理并发现在特定环境下
But researchers have studied reverse psychology and it does seem to have an effect
它的确对真实的人有影响
on real people in certain situations.
当科学家谈到逆反心理 他们关注的是一种叫抵抗的东西
When scientists talk about reverse psychology, they focus on something called reactance.
你知道那种“你不能要求我去做什么”的感觉吗?
You know that “you can’t tell me whatto do!” feeling?
这就是叛逆
That’s reactance.
这个观点最早是在1966年的一篇
This idea was first proposed in 1966,
关于心理抗拒理论的文章上提出的
in a paper on psychological reactance theory that
文章集合了大量关于内部过程的想法和研究
synthesized a lot of thoughts and researchabout this internal process.
这个作者认为
The author suggested that
当我们被发布一个特定的指令
when we’re given instructions to do a particular thing,
我们就会感觉选择的自由被限制了
we feel our freedom of choice becoming restricted.
举例来说 你可以独立地选择你想做的事
For example, on your own, you can choose to do whatever you want
看电影 去公园 吃玉米热狗
— watch a movie, go to the park, eat a corndog…
而当你被告知去做一件特定的事
But when you’re told to do something specific,
选择其他事情的自由就会感觉受到更多限制
your freedom to choose other things feels like it’s more limited.
这样会让人在心理上不舒服
Psychologically, that can be uncomfortable.
然后这种不适感刺激你反击
And that discomfort can motivate you to fight
从而重新获得选择的自由
back to regain that freedom of choice.
所以你可能会反抗 如
So you might disobey. Like,
“不 妈妈我不想清理我的房间”
“No Mom, I’m not going to cleanmy room.
我大概会展示我的魔法:采集卡!”
I’m going to, probably sort my Magic: TheGathering cards!”
如果这是我们在谈论回到高中的我
If we are talking about me back in a highschool.
即使你不想展示魔术:采集卡
Even if you didn’t even want to sort yourMagic: The Gathering cards,
更多的选择导致更少的不适
more options lead to less discomfort.
当然 逆反心理不止是叛逆的孩子会有的
Of course, reverse psychology isn’t justa thing for rebellious kids.
对年轻还是年老人是否更容易
The research is mixed on whether younger or older people
受到更强抵抗力影响的研究褒贬不一
might be more susceptible to stronger reactance,
并且由于其他生活因素的影响比较年龄是困难的
and it’s tricky to compare ages because of other life factors.
但是心理学家们的确知道所有年龄的人
But psychologists do know that people of all ages experience reactance,
在很多情况下都会产生抵触心理
and in lots of situations
从向朋友寻求帮助
— from taking advice from a friend,
到倾听公众健康信息
to listening to a public health message.
例如 在20世纪80年代的美国
For example, when the US drinking age
法定饮酒年龄上调到21岁
was legally raised to 21 in the 1980s,
心理学家记录了不同年龄大学生的行为变化
psychologists noted behavioral changes between college students of different ages.
在1987到1988学年内 一个研究调查了3375名学生
One survey looked at 3,375 college students during the academic year between 1987 and 1988.
然后他们发现21岁以下的学生有80%在饮酒
And they found that 81 % of the students who were younger than 21 drank,
相对来说 21岁及以上有75%饮酒
versus 75 % of students who were 21 and over.
据报道未成年学生酗酒更加严重
Underage students also reportedly drank moreheavily.
24%未成年酗酒者被认为更可能
24 % were considered more likely to
作出冒险的决定或成为严重酗酒者—
make risky decisions or to be heavy drinkers —
至少 相当经常地大量饮酒
basically, having a lot of drinks fairly often.
在这个分类中只有15%的合法饮酒者
Only 15% of legal drinkers were in this category.
如果没有某些原因 你不会想到有如此巨大的差异
You wouldn’t expect such a drastic differencewithout some cause.
当然 一定会有很多因素
And sure, there are a lot of factors that
导致做出饮酒决定
go into the decision to drink.
但研究者们也认为这个趋势是不完全的
But the researchers suggest that this trend was partially
因为学生们在对被限制的自由作出反应
because students were reacting to limited freedom,
去重新建立一种他们可以选择喝或不喝酒的感觉
to re-establish a sense that they could choose whether to drink or not.
1990年另一个研究调查了来自10所学校的2142名学生
Another survey looked at 2,142 students from10 schools in 1990.
然后他们发现21岁及以下人在酒精使用方面存在显著的差异
And they saw significant differences in alcohol use if people were 21 or not,
但不涉及其他药物使用
but not other drug use.
研究者们假设叛逆的进一步支持
The researchers say that further supports the idea
因为改变饮酒年龄
of reactance, because the changing drinking age
对行为自由来说是个大问题
was a big deal to behavioral freedom.
关键是 抵抗会让人们
The kicker is, reactance can cause people to go
违背很多最大利益
against lots of best interests.
甚至忽略医生给出的医疗计划
Even ignoring medical treatment plans fromdoctors.
一个2014年关注于抑郁病人的研究发现
A 2014 study that looked at depressed patients found
高水平抵抗和拒绝吃药之间有很强的联系
a strong link between high levels of reactance and refusal to take medications.
119个因抑郁接受治疗的精神病病人
119 psychiatric outpatients being treated for depression
被要求去填写大量调查问卷
were asked to fill out a number of questionnaires,
用来评估他们的心理抗拒
assessing their psychological reactance,
他们感觉如何 自我效能如何
how in control they felt, self-efficacy,
他们坚持规定药物治疗情况如何
and how well they were adhering to the medications they’d been prescribed.
而且他们的反应说明了抵抗和坚持用药之间明显消极的关联
And their responses showed a distinct negative correlation between reactance and medication adherence.
换句话说 抵抗更强意味着他们更少遵循他们的治疗计划
In other words, stronger reactance meant they followed their treatment plan less.
研究的作者总结道
The authors of the study concluded
这可能有助于心理健康的专家
that it might be helpful for mental health professionals
找到和病人沟通的方式 从而避免产生高水平的抵抗
to find ways to communicate with patients that avoid creating high levels of reactance.
一个策略可以是给病人更多工具去做出选择
One strategy could be giving patients more tools to make decisions,
而不是明确地告诉他们去做或去思考
instead of explicitlytelling them to do or think something.
例如 动机增强疗法强调病人选择的自由
For example, Motivational Enhancement Therapyemphasizes patients’ freedom of choice.
这些疗法经常被用来治疗
And these kinds of therapies are often used to treat cases
药物滥用或酗酒
of drug abuse or alcoholism.
不同于治疗师逼迫一个特定的选择 例如
Rather than a therapist pushing a particular choice, like,
“兄弟 停止吃任何的药品”
“ stop taking all those drugs, dude, ”
治疗师和患者一起总结每个治疗方法的
the therapist and patient work through the pros and cons
好处与坏处
of each approach to the issue.
这样 患者希望能感到更少的限制
This way, the patient hopefully feels less limited,
并且抵抗可能性会更小
and reactance is less likely.
理论上 他们更可能仔细衡量所有策略并
Ideally, they’re more likely to carefully weigh all the strategies and
选择采取措施去恢复
choose to take steps towards recovery.
我们都听说过
We’ve all heard about this,
要让人们认为这是他们自己的想法
you have to make people think it was their idea.
抵抗只是影响人们接受建议可能性
Reactance is just one of many factors that
众多影响因素中的一个
affects how likely someone is to take advice
—这不是绝对能劝说任何人的方法
— it’s not a surefire way to persuadeanyone.
但如果你很幸运有一个顽固的侄子
But if you’re feeling lucky with a stubborn nephew,
或许知道一些逆反心理学会有帮助
who knows, maybe a little reverse psychology will do the trick.
感谢收看这集心理科学秀
Thank you for watching this episode of ScishowPsych!
如果你喜欢视频 绝对不要留下评论
If you enjoyed this video, definitely don’t leave a comment,
那么你敢 敢不订阅!
and don’t you dare, don’t you dare subscribe!
[背景音乐]
[♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

你知道逆反心理吗?逆反心理不仅仅是青春期的孩子会有。而在大多数人们 做出选择时,就很可能会被逆反心理影响,尤其是对疾病的治疗方案。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BOQQPt2LoNY

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