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防狼喷雾的工作原理

How Does Pepper Spray Work?

假设你要去远足 突然冒出了一个攻击者
Let’s say you’re going for a hike and out of nowhere an attacker appears.
你不会以色列搏击术 而且你也不是一头熊
You don’t know krav maga and you’re not a bear
那么 如果事情变得糟糕 你要怎么保护你自己呢
so how are you going to protect yourself if things get ugly?
试试看用防狼喷雾的化学方法
Chemistry–in the form of pepper spray.
防狼喷雾可不是闹着玩的
Pepper spray is no joke.
这东西能够让人受伤
This stuff is designed to hurt
并且它非常有效 据说喷一次
and it’s so effective that a single blast
就能使一个人长达一个小时处于虚弱状态
can reportedly to debilitate a person for upwards of an hour.
现在让我们来了解一下
Let’s take a look at what’s going on
是什么能够让辣酱变成具有威胁性的武器
in this weaponized hot sauce that gives it its sting.
防狼喷雾的有效成分是来自辣椒里的辣椒素
The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which comes from peppers.
但为何防狼喷雾如此强劲
But how is pepper spray THAT intense?
我能把青椒汁喷射进袭击者的眼睛里
I can jam a jalapeno in an attacker ’ s eye all I want
但这对袭击者并没有什么用
but it ’ s not going to do a whole lot
从辣椒到防狼喷雾
To go from this to this,
化学家们细细研磨了大量的辣椒
chemists finely grind up a whole bunch of peppers from the Capsicum family,
然后用乙醇提炼辣椒素
then use ethanol to extract the capsaicin.
再将大多数的乙醇蒸发
Next most of the ethanol is evaporated off,
剩下浓稠的油状残留物
leaving behind a sticky oily residue,
学名叫辣椒油树脂
more formally known as oleoresin capsicum.
这种残留物混合了丙二醇和水
This residue is mixed with propylene glycoland water.
丙二醇使辣椒素形成小液滴
The propylene glycol causes the capsaicin to form little droplets
再与水混合 形成辣椒素与水的乳浊液
that mix throughout the water, making a capsaicin water emulsion.
我们可以把它想象成油和醋混合制成的沙拉调料
Think of it as an oil and vinegar salad dressing
只不过它带有能够使人感到疼痛的小液滴
— except with smaller droplets designed to inflict pain.
之后这种液体会
It’s is then packaged into
被装入一个带泵的喷雾瓶 然后就制成了防狼喷雾
a spray can with a propellant and boom –pepper spray
我们有一个关于
We have an video
辣椒素的作用原理以及为何它会引起灼烧感的视频
on how capsaicin works and why it triggers that burning sensation.
点击这里观看
Check it out here.
当防狼喷雾接触到我们
Pepper spray is especially painful
眼睛 鼻子 嘴的黏膜时 会造成剧烈疼痛
when it comes into contact with mucus membranes in our eyes, nose, and mouth.
与许多别的东西类似
And just like with many other things,
它的浓度影响了毒性
it’s the dose that makes the poison:
你被喷到越多的辣椒素
the more capsaicin you get in your exposed to,
你会感觉越痛
the more you’ll feel the burn,
而且防狼喷雾可以有哈瓦那辣椒的
and pepper spray can have 10 times the capsaicin concentration
十倍辣椒素浓度甚至更多
as a habanero seed… or more.
哎呀
Ouch.
一但某人被喷了
Once someone is pepper sprayed,
辣椒素会立即传递给大脑痛苦的信号
the capsaicin immediately triggers distress signals
让它不自觉喊出 救命
brain essentially saying “Help!
你的身体会强制让你的眼睛闭上
Your body forces your eyes shut,
并分泌一连串的泪水和大量粘液
produces streams of tears, and buckets of mucus.
这一切都是为了减少辣椒素带来的伤害
All to try and protect against more injury
并冲洗掉辣椒素
and flush the capsaicin away.
同时辣椒素会让你眼部周围皮肤有灼痛感
At the same time the capsaicin inflames the skin around your eyes.
而且还会刺激喉咙的神经末梢
It also stimulates nerve endings in the throat
造成喉头肌痉挛 让人没法说话
of the larynx, making it hard to talk
这种痛感被描述成像是
The pain has been described as feeling like
几千片玻璃渣扎进你的眼睛
“ thousands of pieces of glass shooting into your eyes.”
听起来挺有趣
Sounds fun.
但是如果你不小心用防狼喷雾喷到你自己
So now let’s say you accidentally got pepperspray on yourself.
接下来这些是你需要注意的
Here’s what you need to know.
第一 不要碰你的脸
First, do not touch your face.
因为这只会让辣椒素扩散
You’re just going to spread the capsaicin around
从而让你觉得更痛
and make the pain worse.
如果你要要洗掉它
To get this stuff off
你需要非极性的溶剂
you’re going to need something that’s nonpolar,
因为辣椒素也是非极性的
since capsaicin is nonpolar.
你认为牛奶是个好选择 对不对
You’re thinking milk’s the answer, aren’tyou?
但并不是
It’s not.
尽管牛奶含有可缓解疼痛的非极性动物油
While milk does contain nonpolar fats that can dull the burn,
把它倒进你眼睛并不是最好的措施
dumping it in your eyes isn’t the best idea
因为它并不是无菌的
since it’s not sterile.
你真正需要的是这些溶剂
What you really need is one of these.
这些溶剂是无菌的
This solutions are sterile,
且含有一种叫氢氧化镁的盐
and they contain a salt like magnesium hydroxide,
这种盐能让辣椒素分子
which cause the capsaicin molecules
自身内部分解得更快
to be released from their multiplied prison
因此更容易被洗掉
and make them easier to rinse off.
但千万记住不要用薄荷味的抗酸剂
Just make sure not to grab a mint flavored antacid —
因为薄荷醇会让疼痛恶化
menthol can make the pain worse.
是的 科学研究表明 撒了薄荷叶的烤翅会更加辣
Yup science shows mint-sprinkled hot wings might be fusion food too far.
被喷到之后 最理想的情况是找一个冲洗的地方
Ideally you’d then flush your eyes out
花至少15分钟来冲洗你的眼睛
for at least 15 minutes at a wash station,
但很有可能当你被防狼喷雾误伤时
but chances are if you’ve been pepper sprayed,
你身边这些东西都没有
you’re not gon na have one of these right next you.
所以使用抗酸剂后 尽可能多用水冲洗
So just use as much water after the antacid as you can.
既然你已经冲洗好眼睛了
Now that you’ve flushed out your eyes
务必要用温和不伤手的肥皂
be sure to thoroughly wash your hands
像是液状的洗洁精 彻底洗洗手
with a mild soap like liquid dish detergent.
毕竟你也不想因为手上有防狼喷雾残留下的辣椒素
After all that you don’t want to accidently re-contaminate your eyes
而再次意外地导致你的眼睛被污染
with any residual capsaicin from the pepper spray.
但是我们不愿透露给你的事情是
But we hate to break it to you.
一项研究表明 根据你的生理机能
one study suggests that depending on your own physiology,
最好摆脱疼痛的方法就是
the best way to get rid of the pain is
等待疼痛感消去
just to wait it out.
等到眼睛的疼痛感减缓 你就又能看到东西了
Once the pain subsides and you can see again,
在这之后 建议你去看医生
consider seeing your way to a doctor,
以防留下后遗症
just to make sure everything’s OK.
当然 希望你永远不会有用到防狼喷雾的那一天
Well we hope you never have to use it.
但是当形势极其严峻的时候
But when worse comes to worst,
这个小瓶里装的防狼喷雾
the chemistry packed into that little canister
能够帮助你有足够的时间脱离险境
can give you enough time to get out of a dangerous situation
并且生龙活虎地在某天继续观看我们的栏目
and live to learn about chemistry another day.
请一定观看我们的视频 了解关于辣椒素作用的原理
Be sure to check out our video on how capsaicin works
并且不要忘了给我们视频点赞哦
and make sure to hit that thumbs up on your way out.
我们下周见
We’ll see you next week.

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视频概述

视频整体描述了防狼喷雾从制作到使用的原理。同时讲述了被防狼喷雾喷到后的补救措施及注意事项。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

溢心

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFPxj4CcXp0

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