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物质如何产生意识? – 译学馆
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物质如何产生意识?

How Does Matter Give Rise To Consciousness? - Sam Harris

《课外学习》
There are questions that organize our lives
有些问题构建了我们生活的框架
whether we ever ask them or not,
不管我们有没有问过
and here’s one,
这就是其中之一
“how is it possible that matter gives rise to consciousness?”
“物质怎么可能产生意识呢?”
You may never have thought about this,
你可能从未想过这个问题
and if you have, you may go years without thinking about it again,
即使想过 也可能多年不再想起
but this question lies in the heart of everything you care about.
然而这一问题 是你所有关心之事的核心
Consciousness is all you have.
你所拥有的无非是意识
It is all you are as a matter of experience.
经历化为意识 造就了你
It will make the pepole you love worth loving.
意识使爱人值你所爱
It will make your failures to love so tragic.
意识使恋情的挫败如此悲哀
It will put the sting in every missed opportunity.
意识使每次错失的机会成为伤害
It is the substance of every joy and every sorrow.
它是所有快乐和悲伤的实质
It is the wind
它是一阵风
that blow towards sanity or away toward madness.
吹向清醒 或吹离癫狂
And whatever the state of our body is,
无论我们的身体处于何种状况
consciousness is the real boundary between life and death.
意识是生与死的真正界限
To lose consciousness permanently as in a vegetative state,
永久丧失意识 比如在植物人状态下
is to leave the world before you leave it.
就是指意识先于身体离开了世界
It is possible to have a body without consciousness.
脱离意识的身体是有可能存在的
Is it possible to have consciousness without a body?
那脱离身体的意识是不是也有可能存在?
Well yes in a way,
某种意义上确实有
there’s condition called locked-in syndrome,
有一种被称作闭锁综合征的疾病:
where perfectly intact conscious mind can become the prisoner of a body that can’t move.
完全清醒的意识被囚禁于不能动弹的身体
But can bodys and minds separate even further?
但身体和意识能进一步分离吗?
For instance, is something like The Matrix possible?
比如 像《黑客帝国》之类的有可能存在吗?
It seems possible
看似可能
but of course things could go wrong even there.
不过当然 即使在那儿也可能出错
A glitch in your code
就算在《黑客帝国》中
and it would be possible to suffer locked-in syndrome even in the matrix.
代码故障也可能导致闭锁综合征
If consciousness is the result of some immaterial process,
如果意识是某种非物质过程的结果
some immortal soul that is integrated with the clockwork of the brain,
某种整合于脑部发条的不朽灵魂
then death really would be an illusion,
那么死亡就是一种幻觉
and then there would be nothing to fear from it,
那就没有理由惧怕死亡
except for everything that could happen to a conscious mind after death.
除了死后意识可能会经历的一切
now many of us
我们中的许多人
have learned to doubt the picture of consciousness given to us by religion.
已学会怀疑宗教向我们描绘的意识图景
We’ve come to believe that if the universe is stranger than we suppose,
我们开始相信 宇宙若比我们设想的奇怪
or even stranger than we can suppose,
或甚至奇怪到超乎我们所想
it’s not the corny place of
它就不是宗教圣典所呈现的
provincial wish fulfillment and superstition and taboo
陈腐不堪 为满足狭隘愿望
that we find in Scripture.
充斥着迷信和禁忌的场所
Whatever the explanation for consciousness is,
无论怎么解释意识
it might always seem like a miracle.
它看起来总似一个奇迹
And for what it’s worth I think it probably will always seem like a miracle,
不管它有什么价值 总似一个奇迹
but we may learn to ignore this miracle,
但我们可能学会忽视这个奇迹
and to produce conscious machines that no longer seem strange to us.
并制造出我们似乎已不再陌生的意识机器
Many of us will wonder whether this is the right thing to do,
许多人都想知道这么做是否正确
and worry about what our ethical obligations are
担忧人类该对那些可能受苦 被剥夺幸福的机器
to machines that can suffer or be deprived of happiness.
承担怎样的伦理义务
The phrase “robot rights” will no longer be confined to science fiction.
“机器人权”一词将不再局限于科幻小说
And what will human rights be in a world
在有感知能力的机器构成的世界中
populated by sentient machines,
人权会是什么样?
especially ones that demonstrate
尤其是在有些机器显示出
superhuman intelligence and creativity and even moral clarity?
超人的智力 创造力 甚至明确道义的情况下
I think we will one day need to face these questions,
我认为总有一天我们需面对这些问题
and will our children ever be given a choice to back up their conscious Minds in the cloud,
我们的孩子可否选择在云端备份意识?
and how would this be different from duplicating their minds and their experiences,
这和复制他们的思想和经历
and therefore creating other beings who can suffer?
并创造出有此经历的“意识体”有何不同?
Questions of this kind entirely depend on the question we started with
这类问题完全取决于我们最开始的问题
“how is it possible that matter gives rise to consciousness?”
“物质怎么可能产生意识呢?”
What was it like to be a dinosaur,
6500万年前
as a giant asteroid came crashing down in the Gulf of Mexico,
一颗巨大的小行星撞击墨西哥湾时
65 million years ago?
试想恐龙是何感受?
How bad is life for a pig or a cow on one of our factory farms?
在工厂化农场中 猪或牛的生活有多糟?
And how bad does it seem from the outside?
以人类的眼光看 它们的生活有多糟?
How bad is it on the inside for those who live it?
以生活在其中的动物自已看来 有多糟?
How happy would you be in a new relationship? or in a new job?
一段新恋情 一份新工作 或为人父母
or if you had children?
会使你多高兴?
These are questions about consciousness and its contents.
这些问题都涉及意识及其内容
Everything we care about or can care about,
我们关心或能够关心的每件事
and everyone who can care in turn,
再到我们能够关心的每个人
this entire reality is given its substance by the fact of consciousness.
正是意识 使所有的现实生活有意义
Consciousness is the most important thing in the universe.
意识是宇宙中最为重要
I would even say it’s the only important thing in the universe,
我甚至会说它是宇宙中唯一重要的东西
because it’s the carrier of all value, actual and possible.
因为它承载了一切实际或可能具有的价值
And whatever its relationship is to the physics of things,
不管意识与事物的物理属性是何关系
it’s the one thing that cannot be an illusion.
它不可能是幻觉
However confused you are right now,
不管你现在有多困惑
whatever you know or don’t know,
无论你知不知道
whether or not you’re already in the matrix or in a dream,
不管你是否已身处《黑客帝国》或梦中
or in some other way distant from the base layer of reality,
或以其他方式远离现实基础
the fact that it’s like something to be you, is the fact of consciousness.
事实就是 你之所以为你 就是因为意识
And it’s the one thing that can never be in doubt.
这件事是毫无疑问的
And it’s this reality in each moment that awaits your attention.
正是这现实生活的每一刻 期盼你的关注
You can either notice the nature of your experience clearly, really clearly,
你或能非常 非常清楚地觉察到体验的本质
or you can be lost in thought.
或会在思虑中迷失
In each moment the thought will tend to capture you
每时每刻 这种思虑往往占据你的头脑
and lull you to sleep.
催你入眠
and the practice of meditation is to notice this more and more,
而练习冥想 能使你愈发关注到这种体验
and then to wake up,
然后觉醒
wake up.
觉醒
在我们视野所及中 人类存在的唯一目的 是在纯粹存在的黑暗中燃起一点光亮 ——卡尔·荣格

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物质怎么产生意识呢?物质能与意识分离吗?意识究竟是什么?

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