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学习一门新语言能让你的脑容量变大

How Does Language Change Your Brain?

Hey everyone!
嗨 大家好
Thanks for tuning into Test-Tube Plus today.
感谢收看今天的Test-Tube Plus
I’m Trace.
我是Trace
This is a show where we take a big topic.
今天我们要讨论一个范围较广的话题
We break it down into a bunch of different pieces,
我们将这个话题分解成不同部分
so we all get it a little better.
以便更好地理解
This is episode two of five on language.
这是五集语言课程的第二集
And today we’re gonna talk about
我们今天要讨论
how language makes your brain bigger.
语言是如何使大脑变大的
Literally, it does that.
事实也的确如此
When you have a new language in your brain,
往大脑输入一种新语言时
your brain has to… essentially grow in size.
大脑就有必要……变大
It has to make more connections.
大脑需要建立更多联系
It has to learn how to do this whole new thing.
它必须学习如何应对这个新事物
And a Swedish Arm Forces Interpreter Academy
瑞典军队翻译学院
had a study where students were tasked
进行了一项测试 让一些学生
with learning a language at a very fast rate.
以最快的速度学习一门语言
MRI scans were showing that
核磁共振成像扫描显示
specific parts of the brain were developing in size.
这些学生的大脑特定部分在扩大
They were getting bigger.
学习一种新语言
Just because they were learning a language.
是让大脑逐渐变大的原因
Another group was tasked
另一组学生的任务则是
with learning something else.
学习其他东西
You know, just some… you guys learned this.
你懂的 就是让部分人学除语言外的东西
Their brain structures didn’t change in size at all.
他们的大脑结构并没有变化
So learning a language is really great for your brain,
可见 学习一种新语言有助于大脑发展
for a number of different reasons.
且大有裨益
It also significantly improves cognitive function
新学一种语言还能很大程度上
when you pick up a new language.
提高你的认知能力
A study found that
一项研究显示
young adults proficient in two languages
擅长两种语言的年轻人
performed better on attention tests,
在注意力测试中有更好的表现
had better concentration as well
比起只会一种语言的人
than those who spoke only one language.
他们的注意力更加集中
This is a study published
这项研究
in the journal Frontiers in Psychology.
刊登在《心理学前沿》杂志上
There was also a landmark study
美国神经学协会
in the Annals of Neurology
也在《神经学年鉴》公布了一项
by the American Neurological Association.
具有里程碑意义的研究
This was a longitudinal study.
这是一项纵向研究
So what they did is it was over time.
随着时间推移而不断深入
They scanned kids’ brains,
研究人员扫描孩子的大脑
and then came back decades later
数十年过后
and scanned their brains again.
再次扫描
And they found better cognitive function at an older age
研究发现早年学习第二语言的人
when they learned a second language at an early age.
成年后有更好的认知能力
So if they learned a language when they were young,
也就是说小时候学一门新语言
they had better cognitive function when they were older.
长大后认知能力会更好
It actually slowed down brain aging
学习语言确实能让这些人的大脑
and held off Alzheimer’s in these people
延缓超过约4.3年的衰老时间
for more than 4.3 years or approximately that.
并预防老年痴呆
Cognitive functions were not hindered,
这些人的认知能力没有受阻
and in fact their brains were healthier as adults,
反而因为孩童时习得第二门语言
because they’ve learned a second language as a kid.
而在成年时期更加健康
Agreed?
你同意吗?
Being bilingual or trilingual or more is really awesome
学习双语 三种语言 甚至多语的确是一件
for your brain.
有益于大脑的事
So what happens in your brain when you hear a word is
你听到某个词时 大脑的反应是这样的
that the sound is arriving in sequential order.
词的发音会按顺序进入你的大脑
So your brain starts to populate the rest of the word
于是你的大脑听到这个词就能
as it hears it,
立即输入
sort of like Google auto-complete, right.
有点像谷歌的自动补全功能吧
You start typing and you’re getting things,
你一边打字也一边识别
and it’s trying to figure out what you’re typing.
你所敲打的字
It’s the same thing your brain does that too.
大脑也是这么运转的
So if I were trying to say the word “canister”,
所以我说“canister”这个词时
your brain hears “can”
你的大脑能听到“can”
and your brain just now when I said that
我在说这个词时
started putting words together inside of itself.
你的大脑就开始将这个词输入进去
It was like “can”, “Canada”, “cannot”, “cannery”,
比如”can” “Canada” “cannot” “cannery”
“cannabis”, “candle”, “canonical”, “canal”.
“cannabis” “candle” “canonical” “canal”
It was like I’m trying to figure this out .
大脑正努力识别所听到的词
Of course, that’s just English words.
当然 想到的都是英语词汇
When you’re bilingual,
如果你会第二门语言
it’s also going to include words from your second language.
另一门语言的词汇也会浮现在你的脑海
And if you’re trilingual, third language.
如果你会三种语言
It’s gonna try all of these different combinations.
多种语言就会一起出现
That is a lot of processing, requires a lot of effort.
这是一个消耗精力的过程
The thing is though, that would make you think like that
尽管它会让人觉得
language was determining what you’re thinking,
语言能决定你的所思所想
which isn’t really true at all although it’s still debated.
事实上不是这样的 虽然人们对此争议不断
Er…
嗯……
One of our writers here came up with a quote
有一位作家基于许多其他
based on a number of other different kind of ideas,
有关语言的看法 得出来这么一句名言
which is culture could be shaped through the prism of language,
他说语言是能塑造文化的棱镜
which we really liked. Nice one Jules.
我们都赞同这个观点 Jules 说的很贴切
According to Roman Jakobson,
根据举世闻名的语言学家
a world-renowned linguist,
Roman Jakobson的观点
languages differ essentially in what they must convey,
语言本质上在必须负载的内容上有区别
not in what they may convey.
而不是可能负载的东西
Right.
是吧
So language doesn’t determine what you think,
也就是说语言不能决定你的所思所想
but it can determine how you think about things.
却能决定你的思考方式
So the word “fork” in French is a feminine word.
“fork”这个词在法语中是阴性的
In Spanish, it’s a masculine word.
在西班牙语中却是阳性的
Many Latin-based languages
许多拉丁语词汇
have masculine and feminine words.
都分阴阳性
So the word “playa” in Spanish means “beach”.
所以”playa”(河岸)在西班牙语中意为”海滩”
And it is a feminine word because it ends in an “a”.
且这是一个以一个”a”结尾的阴性词
If it ends in “o”, it would be a masculine word.
如果以”o”结尾则是阳性词
So what they did in this study
所以在这项研究中
is they asked people to say a word
他们让人们用卡通人物的声音
like the word “fork” in a cartoon voice.
去说一个像”fork”的词
The participants in French made a high-pitched voice,
法国参与者会用高音调来读
because that word is feminine.
因为这个词对他们来说是阴性的
In Spanish, they made a masculine grunty voice,
但这个词对西班牙来说是阳性的
because that word is masculine.
所以他们会以男性雄浑的声音来读
It’s the same word. It’s a fork.
但这是同一个词 都是”fork”(叉子)
It’s just a thing.
一码事
But we ascribe ideas to it based on our own language.
但基于自身语言 我们会赋予它一些想法
Right. Our language determines its… it’s the prism,
是吧 我们的语言能决定……它是一面
in which we see the world.
让我们观看世界的棱镜
It’s really an interesting way to look at it.
通过这种方式的确很有趣
Another example might be some indigenous tribes will say
另一个例子是 一些土著民族会说
north, south, east and west,
东西南北
rather than saying left or right.
而不是左右
So when we’re walking down the street,
所以在街上走时
you ask somebody where to go.
如果你问某人方向
They’ll say: “Oh, go down there and turn right.”
他会说 沿着那里一直走然后右转
Some people when in English,
一些待在英国的人
but also some tribes
包括一些部落的人
will just say: “Go down here and turn east.”
就会说 沿着那里一直走然后向东行
Now, depending on which way you’re facing,
这取决于你要走的方向
east is never going to change but right will.
右边可能会变 但东边不会
And its consequence the people in these tribes
由此可见这些部落人民
have usually better spatial orientation,
通常有较好的方位感
cause they always understand where they’re facing.
因为他们总能辨别自己所处的方位
Russian speakers who have more words
说俄语的人中 能说更多
for light and dark blue
有关蓝色深浅的词
are better able to visually discriminate shades of blue.
就能更好地从视觉上辨别蓝色的色度
And that also works in English.
说英语的人也是如此
Think about it this way.
打个比方
Designers or people who work in fashion
从事时尚工作的普通人或设计师
or people who work in color
或者与色彩打交道的人
are better at describing color.
都能更好地辨别色彩
And some theories would suggest that they actually see
一些理论表明他们确实
physically see, more color
比缺少语言描述的人
than people who don’t have words for that.
能通过肉眼看到更多色彩
If you see three different pinks in a row
假如你看到一排陈列的三种粉色
and some people say: “well, that’s pink and that’s magenta and that’s fuchsia”.
有人会说 它们分别是粉色 洋红和紫红
Some people would just say pink and that’s also pink.
有人只会说这个是粉色 那个也是粉色
It’s like a different pink and that’s a different pink.
但它是不一样的粉 另一种粉
They may physically remember those things later
随后他们把这些颜色当做
as just one shade of pink,
粉色的不同色度来记住
because that’s how their language has changed their perception.
因为语言改变了他们对事物的观察
English is a Germanic language,
英语属于日耳曼语
which makes languages like Scandinavian and Dutch easier to learn.
所以说英语的人学斯堪的纳维亚语和荷兰语较容易
It’s also Latin-based,
英语也属于拉丁语系
which makes French, Italian and Spanish easier to learn.
所以学法语 意大利语 西班牙语也比较容易
The thing is
然而
there’s no origin sharing with Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Arabic,
汉语 日语 朝鲜语和阿拉伯语没有共同源头
so that makes them very difficult to learn.
所以学习它们不容易
The easiest language to learn when you’re an English speaker,
根据外事学院所示
according to the Foreign Service Institute,
以英语为母语的人最容易学习的语言
comes in various categories.
可以分成如下几类
so Category One takes about 23 to 24 weeks
分类一 需要23到24周的时间
or about 600 hours at most,
或者最多600小时
and you can learn Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian,
你能学到南非荷兰语 丹麦语 荷兰语 法语和意大利语
Latin-based languages especially.
尤其以拉丁语为基础的
Easy, because English also based in there.
较简单 因为英语也有这个基础
Category Two takes about 30 weeks, 750 hours.
分类二 需要30周或750个小时
That’s German.
比如德语
Completely different pronunciations and things.
完全不同的发音和规则等
Lots of different words, much more complicated.
也有许多不同的词汇 更加复杂
Category Three 36 weeks or about 900 hours,
分类三 需要36周或约900小时
you can get Indonesian, Malaysian, Swahili.
你能学会印度尼西亚语 马来西亚语和斯瓦里语
Getting more and more complicated,
它们也越来越复杂
less and less similar to your native language.
和你的母语越来越不像
Again, this is for English speakers.
再次说明 只针对以英语为母语的人
Category Four is 44 weeks or about 1,100 hours.
分类四 需要44周或约1,100小时
You get Thai, Albanian, Vietnamese, Russian.
你能学会泰语 阿尔巴尼亚语 越南语和俄罗斯语
Category Five is 2,200 hours,
分类五 需要2,200个小时
and that’s Arabic, Mandarin, Cantonese, Japanese and Korean.
如阿拉伯语 普通话 粤语 日语和朝鲜语
And these are languages just like English,
和英语一样都是语言
except they’re not at all like English.
除了它们根本不像英语之外
Some of these languages have basis in ideogram.
这些语言有些不像英语那样
instead of you know vocabulary construction
需要知道词的构建方式
in the way that English does.
而是以表意为主
And on top of that,
它们中最难的
Mandarin has its very famously, has tones.
是因带声调而出名的普通话
That is to say,
换句话说
it’s got a variety of different tonal levels that you’ll have to speak in
普通话发音有多种声调
and different tones mean different things.
不同音调表示不同意义
There’s also something else
学普通话
when you get to things like Mandarin.
还值得注意的是
We have tonal languages.
这是一种音调语言
Languages where if I say “hi” versus “hi”,
比如” hi”的不同发音
those can be two very different meanings.
都能表示不同意义
And this is why Chinese and similar languages are very difficult for English speakers.
这就是普通话及类似语言比较难学的一点
We’re not used to speaking in tones.
我们不习惯讲话带声调
And science does say though interestingly
有意思的是 科学家表明
that tonal language speakers have distinct advantages
说音调语言的人有着特定优势
when they’re learning to play
比如学习弹奏乐器
or at least understand musical instruments.
或者至少在识别乐器上
Because a plus one study looked at Cantonese speakers
因为一项附加的研究显示 说粤语的人
who had no musical training.
虽未经过音乐训练
They possessed pitch and tone understanding
但他们对语音语调的理解
similar to trained musicians,
相当于受过训练的音乐家
as opposed to English speakers with no tone base.
说英语的人因为不带声调 则恰恰相反
We don’t understand it as easily.
我们理解起来就有一定难度
So languages are good for your brain.
所以大家都同意
Think we can all agree.
语言有助于大脑发展
Do you know any other languages?
你会说其他语言吗?
How many do you know?
你知道多少呢?
Tell us down in the comments.
在下方评论区与我们分享吧
Make sure you subscribe for more Test-Tube Plus.
别忘了订阅频道以收看更多Test -Tube Plus节目
Come back tomorrow.
明天见
We’re gonna talk a little bit about how language evolves
我们要稍微讲一讲语言演变的过程
and also how they sometimes die.
当然也有它们消亡的原因
If you wanna see that, make sure you subscribe.
想看这期节目吗 那就马上订阅吧
Also, check out yesterday’s episode if you didn’t already.
如果昨天的视频还没看可以补一补
This was episode two of five on language.
这是五集语言视频的第二集
So hopefully you’ll come back tomorrow
希望明天的节目你们也会收看
and we’ll see you then.
我们明天见

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视频概述

学习新语言有助于大脑发展,同时提高我们认知事物的能力。

听录译者

安安

翻译译者

半碗凉茶

审核员

T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGITqiG-Ips

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