ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

动物冬眠的原理是什么? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

动物冬眠的原理是什么?

How does hibernation work? - Sheena Lee Faherty

在宇宙飞船上 宇航员们设定好时间
Onboard the spacecraft,the astronauts preset the timer,
把自己关在船舱中
enclose themselves in capsules,
然后沉沉地陷入
and fall into a deep hibernation
会把他们带到几百年后的冬眠之中
that’ll carry them severalhundred years into the future.
这是科幻电影中的熟悉桥段
This is a familiar scenein many sci-fi films,
但现实生活中 人类真的可以冬眠吗?
but could humans ever actuallyhibernate in real life?
对此感兴趣的研究者就把目光投向动物世界
Researchers interested in this questionturn to the animal kingdom,
冬眠在那里司空见惯
where hibernation is commonplace,
200多种我们已知的动物都会冬眠
occurring in over 200 speciesthat we know of.
以北极地松鼠为例
Take the Arctic ground squirrel.
它是北美苔原地带和俄罗斯北部的土著
Native to the North American tundraand northern Russia,
这种动物会在永冻层上打地洞
this animal burrowsbeneath the permafrost
然后陷入一种暂时亢奋的状态
and slips into a stateof suspended animation,
它的体温会骤降至零下2.9摄氏度 另外
its body temperature plummetingto a frigid -2.9 degrees Celsius. Others,
像母黑熊这样的生物 它可以完成多项任务
like the female black bear,can multitask,
整个冬眠期间 她们能生下孩子并完成哺乳
giving birth and lactating while they’rehibernating through the winter.
肥尾鼠狐猴会以暴食并储存多数脂肪
The fat-tailed dwarf lemur preparesfor its long dormancy
于其尾巴从而倍增体重的方式
by gorging on food and storing the majority
为冬眠做准备
of its fat reserves in its tail, doubling its body weight.
冬眠过后 其外表又会一如往常的苗条
After hibernation, it emerges lookingas svelte as ever.
那么为什么这些动物会如此地不一样呢?
So why do these animalsgo to such extremes?
冬眠是必要的
Hibernation is a necessity,
当逐渐减少的食物和水威胁到它们的生存时
a survival tactic for making itthrough the harsh winter months
这是熬过寒冬的保命策略
when dwindling foodand water reserves threaten survival.
多年来 专家们认为冬眠只发生
For many years, experts believedhibernation happened
在北极以及温度适宜的环境
only in arctic and temperate environments.
但是最近 他们发现动物还会在
But more recently, they’ve discoveredanimals hibernating
干旱的沙漠 热带雨林中冬眠
even in arid desertsand tropical rainforests.
随着冬眠来临
As hibernation kicks in,
动物的心率通常会降到正常心率的
animals’heartbeats usually slow to about 1 to 3 %
1%到3%
of their original speed,
比如侏儒狐猴
like the dwarf lemur’s,
它的心率会从平常每分钟约180次
which drops from its usual roughly 180 beats per minute
降到每分钟只4次左右
to just around four.
其呼吸也会猛然
Breathing also declines dramatically
减弱至每10到21分钟呼吸一次
to just one breath every 10 to 21 minutes in the lemur’s case.
而黑熊 就像大多数冬眠者一样
And black bears, like most hibernators,
整个冬眠期中不会排除体内代谢废物
don’t urinateor defecate the entire hibernation season.
冬眠中的动物能活下去 是通过
Hibernating animals appear to stay alive
只让刚好可支持生命的血液和氧气运至全身
by having just enough bloodand oxygen moving around their bodies.
而且冬眠中的动物的扫描显示
And scans of hibernating animalsreveal that their brain activity
它们的大脑活动是一条直线
has just about flat-lined.
但是冬眠不是一个长长的冬季小憩
But hibernation isn’t a long winter’s nap.
就研究员所知 无论狐猴还是地松鼠
As far as researchers know, in lemurs andground squirrels anyway,
大多数时间里它们并没有睡觉
the animals aren’t evensleeping for most of it.
冬眠其实是一个减慢代谢速度
Hibernation is actually made up of regular bouts
和体温的周期
of reduced metabolic rate
就是我们所熟知的蛰眠
and body temperature known as torpor.
动物可以
Animals can be
进入蛰眠几天至五个星期
in torpor for a few days to five weeks,
在这之后 它们会在24小时内恢复
after which they resume normalmetabolic rate and body temperature
代谢的速度以及体温
for about 24 hours,
在蛰眠的再次到来前
before going back into torpor again.
这个现象就是我们熟知的间歇性觉醒
The phenomenon is knownas an interbout arousal,
它发生的原因也仍是个谜
and why it occurs is still a mystery.
这些冬眠过程中固有的行为
The behaviors inherent in hibernation,
比如五个星期不睡觉
like going five weeks without sleep,
或是体温降至几近冻死的温度
or dropping tonear-freezing body temperatures
可能使我们这些非冬眠型物种死亡
would be potentially fatalto non-hibernating species like us.
为了找出冬眠生物是怎么做到的
To find out how hibernatorsare able to do this,
研究人员把注意力转移到它们的基因组
researchers turned their attentionto those animal’s genomes.
目前为止 他们发现冬眠由基因控制
So far, they’ve discovered thathibernation is controlled by genes
这些基因全年以独特的形式激活或关闭
that turn off and on inunique patterns throughout the year,
微调冬眠生物的生理机能和行为
fine-tuning the hibernator’s physiologyand behavior.
例如 有关地松鼠 熊以及侏儒狐猴的研究
For example, ground squirrel, bearand dwarf lemur studies
显示这些动物可以
have revealed that these animals are
激活这个基因
able to turn on the genes
当它们需要消耗脂肪储存时
that control fat metabolism precisely when
基因会精准控制脂肪的代谢
they need to use their fat stores
就像油可以使人长时间斋戒
as fuel to survivelong periods of fasting.
而我们所谈的基因存在于所有哺乳动物中
And the genes in questionare present in all mammals,
这说明研究员可以通过研究冬眠的哺乳动物
which means that researchers couldstudy hibernating mammals
来观察它们对生理机能独特的的掌控
to see how their unique controlof physiology might help humans.
这也许会帮助人类理解冬眠生物是怎么减少血液循环的量
Understanding how hibernators dealwith reduced blood flow
以指导中风时 施以更好地治疗方式来保护大脑
could lead to better treatments for protecting the brain during a stroke.
明白这些动物怎么避免肌肉退化
Figuring out how these animals avoidmuscle deterioration
也许可以改善长年卧床病人的生活
might improve the livesof bedridden patients.
研究冬眠中的动物如何轻松控制体重
And studying how hibernating animalscontrol their weight with ease
可以说明人类新陈代谢和体重增加的关系
could illuminate the relationship betweenmetabolism and weight gain in humans.
没错 在这一领域更多的研究
And yes, more research in this area
可能会使人类冬眠在某一天成为可能
might someday makehuman hibernation a real possibility.
如果实现星际旅行的关键在于地松鼠黑熊
Imagine our surprise if the key tointergalactic travel
和侏儒狐猴 我们的惊讶可想而知
turns out to be ground squirrels,black bears, and dwarf lemurs.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

研究动物冬眠,也许会实现星际穿越的梦想哦

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

一线通途

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xptpXSTtgSY

相关推荐