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水母是如何蜇人的?

How does a jellyfish sting? - Neosha S Kashef

你正在海洋中游泳突然有什么东西掠过你的腿
You’re swimming in the ocean when something brushes your leg.
当刺痛感传来
When the tingling sets in,
你意识到你被水母蜇了
you realize you’ve been stung by a jellyfish.
这些漂亮的凝胶状的生物如何造成这么痛苦的伤害呢
How do these beautiful, gelatinous creatures pack such a painful punch?
水母很柔软 因为它们体内95%都是水分
Jellyfish are soft because they are 95% water
并且拥有一个半透明凝胶状的物质叫做中胶层
and are mostly made of a translucent gel-like substance called mesoglea.
拥有这样精美纤弱的身体
With such delicate bodies,
它们依靠成千上万的含有毒液的刺丝囊细胞
they rely on thousands of venom-containing stinging cells called cnidocytes
来自卫以及捕食猎物
for protection and prey capture.
即使是幼年水母 只有橡皮大小
Even baby jellyfish, the size of a pencil eraser,
也有蛰人的能力
have the ability to sting.
幼年水母 看起来像小花一样在海洋中律动
Larval jellyfish, ephyrae, look like tiny flowers pulsating in the sea.
当它们长大 它们会变成伞状 顶部像个铃铛
As they grow, they become umbrella-shaped with a bell at the top
并且会减少边缘的触须
and descending tentacles around the margin.
体型最大的水母 狮鬃水母
The largest species of jellyfish, the lion’s mane,
它的触须可以延伸超过100英尺
has tentacles that can extend more than 100 feet,
比一只蓝鲸还长
longer than a blue whale.
这些触须含有大部分的刺丝囊
These tentacles contain most of the stinging cells,
但有一些品种伞顶也含有刺丝囊
although some species have them on their bells, too.
毒液由刺丝囊射出
Venom is ejected via a nematocyst,
刺丝囊是一个像鞭子一样的空心细管
a whip-like hollow tubule,
刺针在高渗透压作用下缠绕起来
which lies coiled under high osmotic pressure.
当有外界或者化学刺激触发到刺丝囊外部感受器
When mechanical or chemical stimuli activate an external trigger,
刺丝外翻且海水涌入
the lid of the cell pops open and sea water rushes in.
从而迫使这种微小带有倒钩的刺针射出
This forces a microscopic barbed harpoon to shoot out,
并将毒液刺入受害者体内
penetrate and inject venom into its victim.
刺丝囊射出毒液所花的时间不足百万分之一秒
Nematocyst discharge can occur in less than a millionth of a second,
这称得上是自然界最快的生物力学过程之一
making it one of nature’s fastest biomechanical processes.
即使水母死亡刺丝囊仍可以射出毒液
Nematocysts can continue to fire even after a jellyfish has died,
所以切记要拔出皮肤内这些长效的刺
so it’s important to remove lingering tentacles stuck to the skin.
用清水伴着醋冲洗可以清除残留的未起作用的刺丝囊
Rinsing with vinegar will usually render undischarged nematocysts inactive.
海水对清除残留的刺丝囊也有帮助
Seawater can also help remove residual nematocysts.
但不要使用清水 因为盐水的任何变化都能改变
But don’t use fresh water because any change in salt balance
刺细胞外部的渗透压
alters the osmotic pressure outside of the cnidocyte
从而促使刺丝囊再次放毒
and will trigger the nematocyst to fire.
这也就是民间一些方子会在受伤的地方涂抹尿液
That’s why urinating on the affected area, a common folk remedy,
却因为尿液中的物质 从而造成更大的伤害的原因
may do more harm that good, depending on the composition of the urine.
大多数水母的毒液只会造成伤痛
Most jellyfish stings are a painful nuisance,
但有一些却会致命
but some can be deadly.
一种印太地区的箱形水母 别称海黄蜂
An Indo-Pacific box jelly, also called a sea wasp,
所释放的毒液在大剂量条件下会造成
releases venom which can cause contraction of the heart muscles
受害者心肌收缩从而迅速死亡
and rapid death in large doses.
这是种抗蛇毒素 但这种毒素作用较快
There’s an anti-venom, but the venom is fast-acting,
所以你需要就近就医
so you’d need immediate medical intervention.
尽管水母触须的威力令人震慑
Despite the impressive power in their tentacles,
但它也不是无敌的
jellies aren’t invincible.
它们的刺丝囊无法匹敌厚皮捕食者的盔甲
Their stinging cells are no match for the armor of thick-skin predators,
比如棱皮龟和翻车鲀
like the leatherback turtle and ocean sunfish.
这些捕食者在捕食时完全能够
These predators both have adaptations that prevents slippery jellyfish
阻止滑滑的水母逃跑
from escaping after they are engulfed:
由于海龟嘴里向内长的牙齿
backwards pointing spines in the turtle’s mouth and esophagus
以及翻车鲀后弯的牙齿
and recurved teeth behind the sunfish’s cheeks.
小龙虾的幼虫还能附着在水母顶部
Even tiny lobster slippery larvae can cling to the bell of a jellyfish
顺便搭个车
and hitch a ride,
并且依靠水母为生借此来积蓄能量生长
snacking on the jelly while they preserve their own energy for growth.
一些敏捷的小鱼把水母当做可移动的礁石来寻求保护
Small agile fish use the jellies as moving reefs for protection,
它们能冲进触须中却不触碰到
darting between tentacles without ever touching them.
裸鳃类动物即海蛞蝓 覆盖着一层保护粘液
Nudibranchs, which are sea slugs covered in protective slime,
通过吃掉水母的刺细胞来增强自己的防御
can actually steal the jelly’s defenses by eating the cnidocytes
它们能把刺细胞转化为特殊的袋子供日后使用
and transferring them to specialized sacks for later use,
并作为武器来抵御捕食者
as weapons against their own predators.
水母的刺有时候对我们也是有好处的
Even humans might benefit from the sting of a jellyfish one day.
科学家们正致力于改造刺细胞来输送药物
Scientists are working on manipulating cnidocytes to deliver medicine,
因为刺细胞只有一只普通针头的3%大小
with nematocysts rarely 3% of the size of a typical syringe needle.
所以下次在海洋时 切记小心
So, the next time you’re out in the ocean, be careful.
但同时 我们也应好好欣赏水母那些令人称奇的地方
But also, take a second to marvel at its wonders.

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视频概述

水母长得虽好看却有毒哦,不要被美丽的外表所吸引,我们要看内涵。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

秣子

审核员

审核团H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu_ijC8HFRU

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