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荷尔蒙的工作原理 – 译学馆
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荷尔蒙的工作原理

How do your hormones work? - Emma Bryce

在我们的一生中
Over the course of our lifetimes,
我们的身体会经历一系列不寻常的蜕变:
our bodies undergo a seriesof extraordinary metamorphoses:
我们成长 经历青春期 并且大部人会结婚生子
we grow, experience puberty, and many of us reproduce.
在幕后 内分泌系统不断地运作以协调这些改变
Behind the scenes, the endocrine system works constantly to orchestrate these changes.
伴随着成长和发育
Alongside growth and sexual maturity,
从你的睡眠到心跳的节奏
this system regulates everythingfrom your sleep
这个系统调节所有的事情
to the rhythm of your beating heart,
对你的每一个细胞施加影响
exerting its influence over eachand every one of your cells.
内分泌系统依赖于
The endocrine system relieson interactions
三种特征之间的相互作用:
between three features to do its job: glands,
腺体 荷尔蒙和数以万亿的细胞受体
hormones, and trillions of cell receptors.
首先 有几个分泌荷尔蒙的腺体:
Firstly, there are severalhormone-producing glands:
三个在大脑里 七个在身体的其他地方
three in your brain, and seven in the rest of your body.
每个都被血管网络包围
Each is surrounded bya network of blood vessels,
腺体从中提取成分 然后制造出数十种荷尔蒙
from which they extract ingredientsto manufacture dozens of hormones.
然后这些荷尔蒙中极少部分被释放出来
Those hormones are thenpumped out in tiny amounts,
通常进入血液中
usually into the bloodstream.
从那里开始 每种荷尔蒙都需要
From there, each hormone needs
依附于一组靶细胞
to locate a set of target cells
以实现特定的改变
in order to bring about a specific change.
为找到自己的目标 它会得到受体
To find its targets,it’s helped along by receptors,
(即)细胞内或其表面特殊蛋白质的协助
which are special proteins insideor on the cell’s surface.
这些受体会识别特定的荷尔蒙
Those receptors recognisespecific hormones as they waft by,
并和它们结合在一起
and bind to them.
然后荷尔蒙和受体结合会产生一系列的影响
When this happens, that hormone-receptor combinationtriggers a range of effects
这些影响会增加或减少细胞内的特定过程
that either increase or decreasespecific processes inside the cell
从而改变细胞的行为方式
to change the way that cell behaves.
精心调节的荷尔蒙
By exposing millions of cells at a time
一次就可以影响数百万细胞
to hormonesin carefully-regulated quantities,
内分泌系统推动了全身大规模变化
the endocrine system driveslarge-scale changes across the body.
例如 甲状腺及其产生的两种激素
Take for instance, the thyroidand the two hormones it produces,
三碘甲状腺原氨酸和甲状腺素
triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
这些荷尔蒙传播到身体的大部分细胞
These hormones travel to mostof the body’s cells,
在那里它们影响这些细胞使用能量的速度
where they influence how quicklythose cells use energy
和它们的代谢速度
and how rapidly they work.
反过来 这调节了从呼吸速率到
In turn, that regulates everythingfrom breathing rate
心跳 体温和消化的所有事情
to heartbeat, body temperature, and digestion.
在青春期 荷尔蒙也有一些
Hormones also have some of their mostvisible—and familiar—effects
非常明显和熟悉的影响
during puberty.
男性中 当睾丸开始分泌睾酮时 青春期就开始了
In men, puberty begins whenthe testes start secreting testosterone.
性器官开始逐渐发育
That triggers the gradual developmentof the sexual organs,
使面部毛发生长 声音深沉
makes facial hair sprout, and causes the voice to deepen
身高增加
and height to increase.
女性中 卵巢分泌雌激素标志着进入成年期
In women, estrogen secreted from the ovaries signals the start of adulthood.
它帮助身体发育 使臀部变宽
It helps the body develop, makes the hips widen,
使子宫内层增厚
and thickens the womb ’ s lining,
为月经或怀孕做准备
preparing the bodyfor menstruation or pregnancy.
对内分泌系统的一个长期误解是
An enduring misconception aroundthe endocrine system
男性和女性身上只有自己的那一种荷尔蒙
is that there are exclusively maleand female hormones.
事实上 男人和女人都有雌激素和睾酮
In fact, men and womenhave estrogen and testosterone,
只是量不同
just in different amounts.
这两种荷尔蒙在怀孕过程中也起着作用
Both hormones play a rolein pregnancy, as well,
另外还有10种以上的荷尔蒙
alongside more than 10 other hormones
确保胎儿的形成
that ensure the growth of the fetus,
出生 并帮助母亲哺育她的孩子
enable birth, and help the mother feed her child.
这个时期荷尔蒙的变化也会引起情绪波动
Such periods of hormonal change are also associated with fluctuations in mood.
这是因为荷尔蒙会影响
That’s because hormones can influence
大脑中某些化学物质的产生 如血清素
the production of certain chemicalsin the brain, like serotonin.
当化学成份含量发生变化时 它们也会引起情绪的波动
When chemical levels shift, they may cause changes in mood, as well.
但这并不是说荷尔蒙对我们有无限的影响力
But that ’ s not to say that hormones have unlimited power over us.
它们经常被认为是影响我们行为的主要因素
They’re frequently viewed as the maindrivers of our behavior,
让我们受制于它们的影响 尤其是在青春期
making us slaves to their effects,especially during puberty.
但有研究表明 我们的行为是
But research shows that our behavioris collectively shaped
由各种影响共同决定的
by a variety of influences,
包括大脑及其神经递质
including the brainand its neurotransmitters,
我们的荷尔蒙和各种社会因素
our hormones, and various social factors.
内分泌系统的主要功能是
The primary functionof the endocrine system
调节我们的身体成长过程而不是控制我们
is to regulate our bodily processes,not control us.
然而 有时疾病 压力
Sometimes disease, stress,
甚至饮食都会破坏这种调节功能
and even diet can disrupt that regulatory function, however,
改变腺体分泌荷尔蒙的数量
altering the quantity of hormonesthat glands secrete
或改变细胞的响应方式
or changing the way that cells respond.
糖尿病是最常见的激素紊乱之一
Diabetes is one of the mostcommon hormonal disorders,
在胰腺分泌胰岛素太少时产生
occurring when the pancreassecretes too little insulin,
胰岛素是一种控制血糖含量的激素
a hormone that manages blood sugar levels.
当甲状腺分泌的激素太少或太多时
And hypo- and hyperthyroidism
甲状腺功能减退或甲亢就会发生
occur when the thyroid gland makes too little or too much thyroid hormone.
当甲状腺激素太少时
When there ’ s too little thyroid hormone,
会导致心率减慢 疲劳和抑郁
that results in a slowed heart rate, fatigue,
当甲状腺激素过多时
and depression, and when there’s too muchthyroid hormone,
会变瘦 失眠 易怒
weight loss, sleeplessness, and irritability.
但是大部分情况下
But most of the time,
内分泌系统会设法让我们身体保持平衡状态
the endocrine system manages to keep our bodies in a state of balance.
通过它的不断调节 它会帮助我们
And through its constant regulation,
完成成长和发育 让我们成长成自己想要的样子
it drives the changes that ultimately help us become who we are.

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人体内荷尔蒙工作原理说明

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视频来源

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