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战争取名宝典

How Do We Name Wars?

战争是人类历史永恒的不幸主题
War unfortunately seems to be a constant in human history.
史料记载中最早的战争发生在
With the first recorded war taking place
公元前2700年的美索不达米亚
in Mesopotamia in 2700 BCE.
纵观历史上所有的人类战争
With all the conflicts that humans have fought in throughout history,
我们需要想出一些方法去命名这些战争
we have needed to create ways to name all this wars.
最普遍的战争命名方法是
So, perhaps the most common way that wars are named
用其战斗地点来命名
is that they are named after where they were fought.
这些都有实例
This can be seen with things
例如朝鲜战争 盖尔战争
such as the Korean War, the Gaelic War,
福克兰群岛战争 伊拉克战争
the Falklands War, the Iraq War,
你懂了吧
you get the idea.
但不同地方对同一战争的命名却不同
Yet, some of these are even interested in their own ways
例如越南战争
such as The Vietnam War.
在西方称为“越南战争”
While known by this name in the west,
在越南却被称为“美国战争”
in Vietnam itself, the war is known as The American War,
更准确地说是“抗美战争”
and more formally as The Resistance War.
它的另一个名字是“第二次印度支那战争”
Another name for it is The Second Indochina War
这是为了区别同样发生在越南的
to differentiate it from the First and the Third Indochina War
第一次和第三次战争
that were fought in Vietnam.
然而当战事扩大 涉战国家增多
Yet when wars get so big and covermultiple countries,
仅用一个国家名来命名是不准确的
just one country’s name won’t suffice.
这时我们自然会想到人类历史上
This of course led to the naming of the two most
最有名的两场战争的命名
infamous wars in human history:
第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战
World War One and World War Two.
一战爆发于1914年
World War One had started in 1914
世界大战这个名字也是那一年第一次出现
and the name World War first appearedin that year, too.
最先是德国称其为Weltkrieg
First appearing in Germany as Weltkrieg
然而在法国和英国却有另外叫法
while over in France and here in Britain it was going by a different name.
在法国叫做“La Grande Guerre”在英国叫做“the Great War”
La grande guerre in French and of course The Great War here in Britain.
理论上 若二战未爆发
Logically you’d think that it wouldn’t be named
一战也不会叫做一战
the World War One until the second one started,
就像 若Playstation二代没有出现
like how the Playstation bacame known as the Playstation One
Playstation一代也不会叫Playstation一代
only when the Playstation Two came out.
这真的是个糟糕的类比
God, that’s an awful analogy.
但从最早一战名字中可知 在还未结束时
Yet the earliest known instance of it being considered the first world war came
它就叫第一次世界大战了
before it had even come to an end.
1918年9月10日 一次会议上
In a diary entry from the 10th of September 1918,
英国海军中尉 Charles a` Court Repington
British officer lieutenant Colonel Charles à Court Repington recounted a meeting
与参会的哈弗大学陆军少校
with major Johnson of Harvard University
讨论了历史学家该如何称呼这场战争
to discuss how historians should refer to the war.
会上 Charles提到
In the diary, Charles wrote:
最后双方同意将此战成为“第一次世界大战”
“Finally, we mutually agreed to call it The First World War
这样可以让迈入千禧年的人们
in order to prevent the millennium folk
铭记世界历史就是战争史
from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of the war.”
除了用一个国家来命名一场战争
I guess somewhere between having wars named after single countries
和用世界来命名战争之外
and wars being named after the whole world,
还有些战争命名涉及两个国家名
we have wars that are named after two nations.
通常这两个国家为交战的双方
Usually named after the nation who are taking part in the war.
比如说英缅战争
The can be seen was the likes of The Anglo-Burmese war
1824年至1885年间英缅两国的战争
fought between the British and Burmese between 1824 and 1885.
还有普法战争 法兰西和普鲁士的战争
And the Franco-Prussian War fought between the Germans and the French.
这种命名方法很有趣
What’s interesting in wars named like this,
但这种方法通常用国家的拉丁文名字
however, is they seem to usually take from the country’s Latin name.
例如用盎格鲁而不是英国
Such as with Anglo instead of English
用弗朗哥而不是法国
and Franco instead of French.
另外一种战争命名涉及战争中
Another way we name wars is after people
影响重大的人物名字
who played a big impact on them.
比如说著名的拿破仑战争
This is most popularly seen Napoleonic wars
用法国军事领袖拿破仑大帝的名字来命名
named after the French military leader and emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.
还有17到18世纪 英法两国之间的
What we also have as a collection of wars between France and Britain
一系列战争
during the 1600s and 1700s.
美洲殖民地时期的战争
During the time of colonial America
都是用英国皇室成员的名字命名
and they are all named after people ranged from British royalty
如威廉王之战 安妮女王之战
like King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War
乔治王之战
and King George’s War.
还有两场涉及宗教人物名的战争
Two wars named after relateda religious figures
如雷利神父之战 用传教士
like Father Rale’s War named after
萨巴斯蒂安•雷利的名字来命名
missionary Sebastian Rale.
还有勒•劳特神父战争
and Father Le Loutre’s War named after
是用神父让•路易斯•勒•劳特的名字来命名
French priest Jean-Louis Le Loutre.
奇怪的是 有相当多的一部分战争
Oddly there’s actually a sizable amount of
用动物的名字来命名
wars named after animals of all things.
如1859年的猪之战
One of these being of The Pig War,
这是一场匪夷所思的战争
a bizarre war at started in 1859.
起因是英美两国的边境居民的一些冲突
Thanks to the some disputes about borders between the British and Americans,
英国人养的一头猪跑进了美国农民的地里
and when a pig owned by Brit have wandered onto the land of an American farmer.
当猪啃食美国农民的马铃薯时
When the pig started eating the farmers’ potato,
农民暴怒并射杀了这头猪
he shot and killed the pig in a fit of rage.
猪的主人和农民打了起来
The owner of the pig and the owner of the potatoes were out for a while,
后来演变成了一场战争
and yes, this really did turn into a war.
幸运的是 此战没有伤亡者
Thankfully, however, there were no casualties.
甚至还有流浪狗之战
We even have The War of The Stray Dog.
爆发于1925年
It was started in 1925 at attention
主要是希腊和保加利亚之间的一系列冲突
between Greece and Bulgaria and a series of conflicts between the two.
希腊军人养的一条狗越过了边境线
Yet, when one of Greek soldiers’ dog around across the border,
它的狗主人就追着它
and his owner run after him,
主人便被土耳其方面射杀了
he was shot by the Turkish side,
这挑起来了双方的战火
which led to fire on both sides
战事持续了6天 超过百人死亡 坏狗狗
lasting 6 days and over 100 deaths, bad doggy.
当然 还有鸸鹋战争
And of course, we have the Great Emu war.
用澳洲军民和两万只饥肠辘辘的
Named for the fact that it was Australian soldiers and farmers
鸸鹋斗争的事件来命名
against 2,000 revenued Emus
各位 我并未编造 这真实发生在澳洲
Seriously guys, I’m not making this up, only in Australia.
当然 还有一些战争的名字千奇百怪
And of course we have some outright weirdly named wars,
开战原因也千奇百怪 比如橡木桶之战
fought over equally weird reasons such as The War of the Oaken Bucket.
1325年 摩德纳和博洛尼亚
In 1325, a war broke out between the two-city states
两个城邦国家交战
of the Modena and Bologna.
战事逐渐失控
When their rivalry went out of control,
摩德纳偷袭博洛尼亚时
when more dinner soldiers raided and
从那里偷走了一个大木桶
stole a large wooden bucket from a Bologna.
此战持续了12年
This war lasted 12 years
可怜的博洛尼亚最后也没夺回他们的木桶
and poor Bologna never even got theirbucket back.
还有詹金斯的耳朵战争
And we have The War of Jenkin’s Ear
是1738年英国和西班牙的战争
between the British and Spanish in 1738.
此战战前酝酿了一段时间
The war had been in the works for a while.
全面爆发是英国船员
But the breaking point was when British mariner
罗伯特在议会上指控西班牙海警
Robert Jenkins displayed his severedear parliament
以走私罪名切下他的耳朵
blaming a Spanish coastguard for
并在议会上展示了他切下的耳朵
cutting it off as punishment for smuggling.
也许最有趣的战争名是其
Perhaps one of the most interesting named wars
根本不是一场战争
wasn’t a war at all.
如维基百科所言:“这是一种地缘政治的紧张状态”
As Wikipedia puts:”It was a state of geopolitical tension.”
比如美国和苏联之间的冷战
I’m of course talking about the Cold War between the United States and the U.S.S.R.
冷战发生在1947年到1991年
considered to be between 1947 and 1991.
但为什么这段时间被称为冷战?
But why was this time called at the Cold War?
确实 俄罗斯有时挺冷的
Sure, Russia can get pretty chilly at times
但是冷战中的冷是指美国和俄罗斯
but the cold in the Cold War is actually referring to the relationship
在这一时期关系冷淡
between US and Russia during this period.
冷战是伯纳德•巴鲁特1947年时起的
The name was actually coined by Bernard Baruch, advisors to then president
他是总统伍德罗•威尔逊的顾问
Woodrow Wilson in 1947.
另一种战争命名法是用其持续天数来命名
Another way that we name war is after the duration of the war.
比如六日战争
This can range from anything between the 6 Day War
交战方有以色列 约旦 埃及 叙利亚
between Israel, Jordan, Egypt and Syria,
还有法国和英国之间的百年战争等等
to a set for 100 years’ wars between France and Britain.
但有趣的是第一次百年战争
Though what’s interesting about the 100 Years’ war is
实际上持续了116年
the first was actually 116 years long.
第二次则是126年
And the second 126 years long.
我猜是百年战争显得更好听一点
But I guess just 100 years sounds much better.
“嗨 Patrick 你讲历史怎么不带我”
“Hi, Patrick, are you talking about a history without me?”
“Hilbert 你在我旁边干什么”
“Hilbert, what are you doing in my neck of the woods?”
“我无意中听到你正在谈论战争”
“Well, I overheard you talking about wars over here,
“尤其是用战斗天数命名的战争”
“specifically wars named after their duration.
“你漏掉了八十年战争”
“And you left out the 80 Years War.”
“抱歉Hill 视频里我确实漏掉了很多”
“Well, sorry Hill, but I left that a fair few wars in this video.
“关于八十年战争 有什么有趣的事吗!”
“What’s so fascinating about the 80 Years War?”
“有什么有趣的事?”
“What’s so fascinating about it?”
“我知道”
“Yeah, Ich kenn dich, I can know that.”
“这是弱小的荷兰共和国
“It was a mighty struggle of the fledgling Dutch Republic
反抗强大的西班牙帝国的猛烈战斗”
against the might of the Spanish empire .
“此战让今天人们可以
“And it’s is the reason why today we’re free to
在风车之间骑自行车自由穿行”
ride bikes from windmills to windmills,
“吃着华夫饼和向游客兜售郁金香”
“eating our sloppy waffles selling ourtulips to tourists.
“各位 为什么不和Patrick一起
“Hey, guys, why don’t you and Patrick come over
来到Hilbert的历史频道”
to my channel History with Hibert.
“看完这则以及我近期关于
“After you’ve watched this video and watch my latest video
重要战争的视频”
on this most pivotal of wars.”
“好 欢迎大家收看《跟Hilbert一起学历史知识》”
“Well, I guess we should go learn some history with Hilbert.”
-这样可以了吗?-感谢你
-See what I did there.-Ich danke dir.
非常感谢你们一如既往的支持
A huge thank you as always to all my patrons.
我觉得在YouTube上这个视频会是免费的
I get the feeling that YouTube will demonetize this video
因为这是关于战争的
as it’s about war.
所以如果你和我一样对YouTube感到不爽
So if it annoys you as it annoys me,
YouTube不支持而你却想支持我们的频道
and you want to help support the channel when YouTube doesn’t.
不妨赞助我们吧
Then why not consider supporting the patron,
一个月只要2美元你的名字
just two dollars a month will get your name
就可以出现在赞助鸣谢里
with all these awesome people.
谢谢
Thank you.

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译制信息
视频概述

实用的战争取名方法

听录译者

ABC

翻译译者

Claudia

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bI9iZLCfp9w

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