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如何寻找新的行星? – 译学馆
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如何寻找新的行星?

How do we find new planets?

杰基·法赫蒂(美国自然历史博物馆 天体物理学家)我们如何发现新行星?
>>JACKIE FAHERTY (astrophysicist, AMNH):How do we find new planets?
我们知道像水星 金星
> > FAHERTY: So we’ve known about planets like Mercury, Venus,
火星 木星 土星这样的行星
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn
只要我们抬头看
as long as we’ve been looking up
就能知道它们是夜空中
as they were obvious objects in the nighttime sky – bright
与恒星运动不同 且显而易见的物体
objects that move different than the stars do.
我可以说我们过去
And the way that I can say
探测到它们的方法就是用肉眼
that we detected them would be with your eye
或者直接成像
or with direct imaging.
所以你直接探测到了那些行星
So you’ve directly detected those planets.
现如今 我们正在寻找其它恒星周围的行星
In today’s world, we’re searching for planets around other stars,
我们称之为系外行星
objects that we call exoplanets.
我们实际上也在尝试用直接成像法
And this direct imaging method is actually something
只借助复杂得多的仪器
that we try as well, just with far
我们已经用这种方法发现了很多行星
more complicated instrumentation, so we have found that many planets that way.
但天文学家们还使用了其他的方法
But there are other methods that astronomersuse as well.
其中一种最流行且高效的方法叫做凌星法
One of the most popular and productive is called the transiting method.
从地球的角度 你可以看到
You can see the light
恒星的亮度以一种周期性模式轻微地下降
of a star dip ever so slightly in a cyclic pattern due to a planet
因为一颗行星在它前面移动
moving in front of it from Earth’s perspective.
所以我们观测
So we watch thousands
数以千计的其他恒星
upon thousands of other stars
并且我们在光线中寻找微小的变化
and we look for tiny dips in the light.
已经有几千颗行星通过这种方式被发现
Thousands of planets have been found that way.
还有一种利用摇摆舞的方法
Other methods take advantage of somethingcalled the wobble.
如果有一颗大行星围绕一颗适当大小的恒星
If you have a big planetaround a decent-sized star
这颗行星将牵引恒星
the planet will tug on the star, causing
导致它晃动一点点
it to wobble a little bit.
有一种方法可以让你能看到那种晃动
So one way that you can see that wobble is
就是通过我们所说的径向速度法
through what we call the radial velocity method.
这里你收集一颗星球的光线
And this is where you take the light of a star,
然后将其拆散成它的光谱
and you break it up into its fingerprint.
然后你可以看到这光谱
And you could see that light fingerprint move
向你移动或者远离你
towards you or away from you, depending on
取决于行星在朝着你或者远离你牵引恒星
if the planet is tugging the star towards you or away
与多普勒效应相似
from you, similar to the Doppler effect,
当一辆车朝你开来
where when a car is coming
听到的声音比原来高
towards you the sound is higher, and when the car
而当车驶离你声音就变低
is pulling away from you it’s lower.
截至2018年 利用径向速度发现了超过700颗行星
另一种利用摆动的方法
And the other way you could take advantage
被称为天体测量法
of that wobble is something called the astrometric method.
这种方法需要你非常仔细地观察
And that’s where you would very very carefully watch the position
恒星的位置
of a star and you could
然后你可以看到它在前后晃动
actually see it jump back and forth, due to a
因为一颗行星在牵引它向你移动或远离你
planet pulling it towards you or away from you.
尽管我们仍没能用这种方法发现一颗行星
And while we have yet to discover a planet using this method,
但是有新的记录和调查
there are new catalogs and surveys
能让我们用这种方式去探测行星
that will allow us to detect planets this way.
我们现在知道
We now know of thousands
数千计的系外行星环绕其他恒星
of exoplanets orbiting other stars
而下一代天文望远镜
and the next generation of telescopes
只能给让我们获得更多的信息和发现更多行星
is only going to give us more informationand more planets.
很快我们将能够讲更多
And we will soon be able to tell far more stories
关于银河系中系外行星的故事
about the diversity of exoplanets in the galaxy.
在我们的太阳系中也许还有一颗行星
There actually may be another planet in ourown solar system.
我们称之第九大行星
We’re calling this one Planet Nine.
为了找到它
In order to find it you’ve got to
你必须搜寻整个星空 寻找那些移动的物体
scan the entire sky looking for something that moves.
登录该网站
And you can log onto BackyardWorlds. Org
这是我参与的一个大众科学项目
it’s a citizen science project that I help run
你可以参与我们的搜索
and you can participate in the search.

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视频概述

介绍了几种寻找系外行星的方法

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翻译译者

YXG-258c1

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Lyw_8fBNT8

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