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龙卷风是如何形成的? – 译学馆
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龙卷风是如何形成的?

How do tornadoes form? - James Spann

他们叫我龙卷风追逐者
They call me the tornado chaser.
每当有风刮起 如果条件合适
When the wind is upand conditions are right,
我就钻进车中 追逐狂风
I get in my car and follow violent storms.
是不是认为我疯了 也许吧 但我确实在追逐天空巨兽中了解它们
“Crazy,” you say? Perhaps, but really Ichase these sky beasts to learn about them.
我想把我知道的事情告诉你
I want to share with you what I know.
龙卷风是快速旋转的空气柱内形成的风暴
Tornadoes are rapidly rotating columnsof air that form inside storms
它通过一个漏斗状的云与地面相连
that connect with the ground viaa funnel of cloud.
当风暴来临 它们将地面撕裂
When that happens,they tear across the Earth,
对生命和财产构成巨大威胁
posing a huge threat to life and property.
正因如此
Because of this,
人们对这些现象进行了大量的研究
there’s a great deal of research into these phenomena,
但实际上
but the truth is,
我们对龙卷风如何形成仍知之甚少
there’s still a lot we don’t know about how tornadoes form.
形成一场龙卷风的条件
The conditions that maygive rise to one tornado
可能不是形成另一场龙卷风的必要条件
won’t necessarily cause another.
自从人们开始第一次记录龙卷风
But we have learned a lot
我们(对其)已经了解了很多
since people first started recording tornadoes,
比如 如何通过迹象预判龙卷风的形成
like how to recognize the signs when one is brewing in the sky.
要不要搭个便车去看看呢
Are you coming along for the ride?
龙卷风以雷雨为前兆 却又不仅仅是雷雨
Tornadoes begin with a thunderstormbut not just any thunderstorm.
那些极其狂暴而猛烈的雷暴被称作 超级单体
These are especially powerful, toweringthunderstorms called supercells.
蔓延至5000英尺的上空 它们带来了高强度的风
Reaching up to over 50,000 feet,they bring high force winds,
巨大的冰雹 甚至洪水 有时还伴有强大的雷暴
giant hailstones, sometimes floodingand great flashes of lightning, too.
这些是能生成龙卷风的风暴
These are the kinds of stormsthat breed tornadoes,
但除非刚好也有些极其特殊的条件
but only if there are also veryspecific conditions in place,
我们才能测量与寻找到
clues that we can measure and look out
预测风暴的线索
for when we’re trying to forecast a storm.
上升气流是龙卷风变强的第一要素
Rising air is the first ingredient needed for a tornado to develop.
任何风暴都是在凝结发生时形成的
Any storm is formedwhen condensation occurs,
它是云的副产品
the byproducts of the clouds.
凝结放热
Condensation releases heat,
热量成为推动空气向上延伸的能量
and heat becomes the energy that drives huge upward drafts of air.
水汽越是凝结 风暴云就越大
The more condensationand the bigger the storm clouds grow,
也就有更大的上升气流
the more powerful those updrafts become.
在超级单体中 这种上升的气团极其巨大
In supercells, this rising airmassis particularly strong.
随着空气的爬升
As the air climbs,
它可以改变方向并开始更快地移动 最后
it can change direction and start to move more quickly. Finally,
在风暴的底部
at the storm’s base,
如果有很多的水汽
if there is a lot of moisture,
一个巨大的云基得以生成 如果龙卷风走的够远
a huge cloud base develops,giving the tornado
它就作为养料 促进其增强
something to feed off later,if it gets that far.
当所有条件都具备时
When all these things are in place,
在暴风的包围下 就会形成漩涡
a vortex can develop enclosed by the storm,
并形成一个宽而高的
and forming a wide,
旋转气柱 且不断的被拉向上空
tall tube of spinning air that then gets pulled upwards.
我们称之为中气旋
We call this a mesocyclone. Outside,
那些外部的干冷的空气
cool, dry, sinking air
开始缠绕在这个中气旋的后边
starts to wrap around the back ofthis mesocyclone,
形成所谓的后侧下沉气流
forming what’s known as arear flank downdraft.
这种不同寻常的情况会造成
This unusual scenario createsa stark temperature difference
气旋内外空气的显著温差
between the air inside the mesocyclone,and the air outside,
营造了一种能促使龙卷风变强的不稳定的环境
building up a level of instability that allows a tornado to thrive. Then,
随后 中气旋的下部变得更小
the mesocyclone’s lower partbecomes tighter,
从而增强了风速
increasing the speed of the wind. If,
假设 而且是重大假设
and that’s a big if,
这股漏斗状的风下移到
this funnel of air moves down
母风暴底部的
into that large,
巨大且潮湿的云基
moist cloud base at the bottom of the parent storm,
就会将其吸入
it sucks it in and turns it
并使之变为转动的云墙
into a rotating wall of cloud,
在地面和孕育它的风暴之间形成一种链接
forming a link between the storm that created it and the Earth.
第二道旋转的云柱接触地面
The second that tube ofspinning cloud touches the ground,
也就形成了龙卷风
it becomes a tornado.
多数的龙卷风小而短命
Most are small and short-lived,
产生65-110英里每小时的风
producing winds of 65-110 miles per hour,
但是另一部分可以持续一个多小时
but others can last for over an hour,
产生每小时200英里的风速
producing 200 mile per hour winds.
它们虽然美丽却很可怕
They are beautiful but terrifying,
特别是在它途经你或你住的小镇时
especially if you oryour town is in its path.
在这种情况下 没有人 甚至像我这样的龙卷风追逐者
In that case, no one,not even tornado chasers like me,
会喜欢看到物体被撕裂
enjoy watching thing unfold.
万物皆有尽头 龙卷风也不例外
Just like everything, however,tornadoes do come to an end.
当温差消失 条件稳定
When the temperature difference disappearsand conditions grow more stable,
或空气中的水汽耗尽时
or the moisture in the air dries up,
曾经猛烈的母风暴失去动力 也将龙卷风拉回体内
the once fierce parent storm loses momentum and draws its tornado back inside.
即便如此 气象学家和像我一样的追风者
Even so, meteorologists and storm chasers
仍会继续守望 观望
like me will remain on the lookout, watching,
并且不懈的观望 看看暴风雨是否又会扔出套绳
always watching to see if the storm releases its long rope again.

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龙卷风是如何形成的呢?想不想和我去看看

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