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盲人如何感知世界

How Do The Blind Perceive The World?

你好 欢迎收看生活科普 盲人是如何感知世界的呢?
Hey there, welcome to life nogging. How do the blind perceive the world? How different
他们感知世界的方式与普通人有什么不同呢?一起来看看吧
is it from the way a person with sight does? Let’s find out.
首先 我们要知道失明是分不同等级的
To begin, there are different levels of blindness we need to be aware of.
法律上的失明是指视力达到20/200及以上注 20/200 说明此人在距视力表20英尺处看到的东西与普通人在距视力表200英尺处看到的东西一样
Legal blindness refers to a person’s vision being 2200 or less,
正常人的视力一般为20/20注 视力为20/20时 表示视力“正常” 能看到大多数人在20英尺之外看到的东西
with normal vision being 20 20, a 2200 vision means you would have to stand 20 feet away from an object to see it as clearly as a person
20/200意味着你必须站在距物体20英尺远才能看清楚像一般人
with normal vision being 20 20, a 2200 vision means you would have to stand 20 feet away from an object to see it as clearly as a person
从200英尺以外看到的东西
with 20 20 vision could see it from 200 feet. People
人们也有局部失明的情况 这与白内障或丧失中心视力等原因造成的视觉灰暗失真有关
can also have partial vision lost. With their experiencing things such as cloudy your fuzzy images
但这时周边仍有一般视力就像黄斑变性那样注 黄斑变性的病理机制主要为黄斑区结构的衰老性改变
from conditions like cataracts, or lose central vision but mantain a normal peripheral vision
完全失明是指完全无法用眼睛看到任何东西
like was macula degeneration. Total blindness refers to the completely inability to see anything with either eye.
但这对他们感知世界意味着什么呢?
But what does that mean for their perception of the world?
他们可能很难理解其他人想表达的意思
While it can be difficult to know what another person’s experence is,
下面有几种失明者用的不同的感知方式
There are different perceptions that have been reported by indviduals with total blindness.
一种感知方式是用没有任何颜色的感知组成的图像
One is that a sort of image can still be formed using the other senses, just
我在这里说的“没有任何颜色”是指连黑色和白色也没有
without any color. And when i say without any color i mean even black
这种情况见于在幼年就失明的人身上
and white. This was reported where the person was blind for an extremely early age.
另一种感知方式是他们会看到一种有着不断变化明亮多彩的光的景象
Another perception is that they may see a bright and colorful landscape of ever changing light.
这种情况出现在失明前已经记住了光的感觉的人身上
This view was reported by some people they went blind later in life and
那么 视力缺失会使其他感觉更敏锐吗?
still remember what it’s like to experience sight. So does lacking sight increase other senses?
过去人们认为视力缺失会使嗅觉更敏感 但最近的研究表明恰恰相反
While it used to be thought that people without sight would have a stronger sense of smell,
一项德国研究通过主观和客观测试的方法发现
but modern evidence seems to prove otherwise. Using both subjective and objective testing methods,
失明的人和没失明的人嗅觉敏锐程度没多大差别
a German study found no measurable differences between the sense of smell of blind participants
然而视力的缺失会使触觉更敏锐
and those with sight. However it does seem to ring true that lack of sight leads to a better
盲人特别是生来失明的人有着更迅速敏锐的触觉
sense of touch. Blindness especially from birth has been shown to lead a
这极为不可思议的平衡感使杂技对他们来说也不难
faster and more sensitive tactile ability, so it looks like dare devil’s incredible sense of balance
我什么时候可以开一场牛人演出?
and acrobatics isn’t that far off. When do i get my superhero show? Because
我穿着紧身衣看起来是这么棒
i look great in tights. Some blind individuls have even been able to master echo
一些盲人甚至能够利用回声定位来认路
location to see in their own way. Normally reserved for talking about animals like bats
就像蝙蝠海豚一类的动物一样回声定位就是利用回声和声波确定物体的位置
and dolphins. Echo location is where echoes and sound waves are used to determine where
一些盲人可以利用敲击的声音和说话声来进行回声定位
objects are. Some people can use this technique by making clicking noises
以此推测他们周围的环境
with their tongues to build a special representation of the world around them.
回声定位不仅可以使人们得到物体的大小 形状甚至是纹理信息
Not only can echo location give people information regarding size,
还有最近研究发现在大脑处理回声时
shape and even texture of objects. But it was recently found that when processing echo,
大脑会把信息传递到视觉区域
the brain uses it’s region typically devoted to vision.
也许你“看到”的会比眼睛直接看到的要多
Maybe your visions are more than just what our eyes tell us.
这样说来完全失明的人仍然对光有反应
It also seems people with a total blindness still react to light.
我们的大脑可以像照片接受器一样在视网膜神经细胞表层察觉光
Our brains can detect like the way photo recepter in a ganglion cells layer of the retinal,
这种方式不同于普通人用视杆细胞和视椎细胞来接收图像
which is different from rods and cones we used to see. A recent study was done where participants
最近的一项研究表明完全失明的人能准确地判断蓝光是打开还是关闭的
with total blindness were able to correctly determine when the blue light was on or off. They were
此实验也证明他们更能注意到闪光灯的存在
also shown to be more attentive in response to flashing lights.
这个重要的实验证明了
Through in the importance of this, it gives the validity to the theory that lights stimulate brain activities, and gives
“光会刺激大脑活动并提高计算成绩 无论这个人是否失明”
enhanced performance on calculator tests whether a person is blind or not.
我虽然看不见但我仍可以感觉到这是非常酷的
I may not have eyes but i can still see how incredibly cool this is. So we talk about sight,
这期节目我们谈论了视力 那么我们对于声音的感觉呢?你想知道我们是怎么听到声音的吗?
but what about our sense of sound? Have you ever wanted to know how we actually hear things?
为了解释这个问题我们首先要讨论声波的传播
To answer that first we need to discuss the Physicals of sound wave.
这些纵向波用于无线电感谢收看
Those are longitudinal waves that travel through a media. Thank you so much for watching.
我叫Blocko 这是本期生活科普 不要忘了一直思考
My name is Blocko, This has been life nogging, don’t forget to keep on thinking.

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视频概述
听录译者

小鸭

翻译译者

阿兹

审核员

【MO】哒

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SIJDlnd9GOg

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