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潜水艇是如何工作的?

How Do Submarines Work?

简介
[ ♩ INTRO ]
真的吗?
Really?
[Squeaks继续说]:然后潜水艇被困在冰层下了
[Squeaks keeps talking: then the submarinegot stuck under some ice!]
然后发生了什么?
And then what happened?
[Squeaks讲述着]
[Squeaks squeaks]
这太好了!
That’s great!
Squeaks刚刚是在给我讲述它读的一个故事
Squeaks was just telling me about a storyhe was reading.
这是一艘潜艇探索海洋的故事!
It was about a submarine exploring the ocean!
[Squeaks吱吱地说着]
[Squeaks squeaks]
你也想要登上一艘潜艇吗?
You want to go in a submarine, too?
这听起来会非常有趣
That sounds like it could be a lot of fun.
或许有一天我们会去参观一艘潜艇!
Maybe someday we will visit a submarine! Actually,
其实有一位叫Sam的观众不久前向我们提了一个关于潜水艇的问题
a viewer named Sam sent us a question about submarines not too long ago.
潜水艇有点像船 只不过它是在水下潜行的
Submarines are kind of like boats, except they go under the water.
关于它们是怎么做到的 Sam想要知道的更多!
And Sam wanted to know more about how they can do that!
嗯……
[Squeaks squeaks] Well,
潜水艇的工作原理是让物体上浮和下沉
submarines work because of the way things float and sink,
再加上一些巧妙的构思
and some really smart thinking.
你应该知道当你把一些东西放进水中时
You probably know that when you put things in water,
有些会浮起来 有些则会沉底
some of them float at the top, and some of them sink to the bottom.
我们与朋友比尔和韦博做了一个实验去了解东西为什么会漂浮和下沉
we did an experiment to learn why things float or sink with our friends Bill and Webb.
Squeaks 你还记得吗?
Do you remember that, Squeaks?
我们知道一个物体是否漂浮取决于它们的密度
We learned that whether something floats depends on its density,
或者说是单位体积的质量
or how heavy it is for its size.
如果它比等体积的水重 那么它就会下沉
If it’s heavier for its size than water,it sinks.
如果比水轻 它就会上浮
If it’s lighter, it floats.
例如 一个塑料勺相对本身体积不是很重 所以它会浮起来
For example, a plastic spoon isn’t very heavy for its size, so it floats.
但是一个金属勺 相对其体积而言已经相当重了 所以它会下沉
But a metal spoon is pretty heavy for its size, so it sinks.
这也是船漂浮的原理
That’s how boats float, too.
它们真的很重———你连一艘都提不起来的!
They’re really heavy — you wouldn ’ t be able to just pick one up!
但是它们相比起自身的大小 并不是十分的重
But they’re not actually very heavy compared to how big they are.
密度也不是很大 所以能漂起来!
They’re not very dense, so they float!
潜水艇能在水上漂浮是同样的原因
And submarines can float on top of the water for the same reason.
但潜艇能在水下航行
But for a submarine to be able to go /under/ the water,
就需要我刚才提到过的一些巧妙的构思了
it needs some of that really smart thinking I mentioned earlier.
为了潜入水中
To dive into the water,
潜水艇就得在自身体积的基础上变得来说更重它需要更大的密度
a submarine needs to become heavier for its size — it needs to be more dense.
但是 要在海洋中
But it’s not so easy to make something
使物体变得更重是很不容易的!
heavier when you’re in the middle of the ocean!
这就是为什么潜艇拥被称为载压水舱的大水箱
That’s why submarines have big tanks, calledballast tanks.
当潜水艇下潜时
When it’s time for the submarine to dive down,
载压水舱打开
the ballast tanks open so they fill
这样它们会被水填满
up with water.
把水的重量添加到潜水艇上
Adding the weight of the water to the
使它的密度大到可以下沉的程度
submarine makes it dense enough to sink.
如果你有一个空塑料瓶和一碗水就可以看到这是怎么回事了
You can see how this works if you have an empty plastic bottle and a bowl of water.
第一步 如果你把瓶子放进水中
At first, if you put the bottle in the water,
它将会浮起来因为里面有空气
it will float because the only thing inside it is air.
相对自身体积 它是非常轻的
It’s very light for its size, so it’snot very dense.
但如果你打开瓶盖让水进去
But if you take the cap off the bottle and let the water
它就会沉下去!
in from the bowl, it will sink!
水使它单位体积的重量增加了
The water makes it heavier for its size,
就像把水注入潜水艇上的
just like putting water in the ballast tanks on
载压水舱那样
a submarine does.
潜艇剩余的部分非常坚固并且是密封的
The rest of the submarine is very strong and sealed up tight,
因此水无法进入
so water can’t get in,
并且这样如果潜艇上有人 他们也可以呼吸
and so that if there are people on the submarine, they can breathe.
为了确保他们不会用尽空气
To make sure they don’t run out of air,
他们会把额外的被压缩的气体
they bring along extra air that’s all squeezed
全部放进一个瓶子里
together inside a bottle,
就像你在打气时把空气压进自行车轮胎一样
like how you squeeze air into a bicycle tire when you pump it up.
它们就能在水下继续探索航行
And then they can go exploring under the water,
就像Squeaks读的故事里的人们一样
just like the people in the story Squeaks was reading!
[Squeaks认为这很酷]
[Squeaks thinks this is cool]
在现实生活中 我们在很多方面利用潜艇
In real life, we use submarines for all kinds
包括探索更多有关 海洋世界的东西
of things, including learning more about the oceans.
当科学家们把潜艇送进水下时 他们发现了那么多奇妙的动物
When scientists send submarines under the water, they find so many cool animals.
有水母 章鱼 螃蟹 鱼
There are jellyfish, octopuses, crabs, fish,
和很多我们以前没有见到过的动物
and tons of animals we’ve never even seen before!
但在潜水艇进行了水下探索之后
But after the submarine is done exploring under the water,
还有一件
there’s one more thing
需要做的事情
it needs to be able to do.
你可能已经猜到了那是什么
Maybe you’ve already guessed what it is.
我们知道潜艇是怎样下潜到水下的……
We know how submarines dive
但是它们怎么回来呢?
under the water … but how do they get back up? Well,
还记得潜艇是怎样带来额外空气的吗?
remember how submarines bring alongextra air?
如果潜艇上有人 他们可以使用这些空气来呼吸
If there are people on the submarine, they can use it to breathe,
但这不只是用来呼吸的
but it’s not only for breathing.
当潜艇到了需要上浮到水面的时候
When it’s time for the submarine to go back up to the surface,
它把空气推进载压水舱中
it pushes air into the
并把水排出去
ballast tanks, and water out.
这使得潜艇相对于自身体积的重量变得更轻
That makes the submarine lighter for its size,
因此能够上浮到水面上!
so it can float up to the top of the water!
Squeaks认为这很了不起
[Squeaks is impressed]
这真的是一种很好的用科学去探索世界的方式
It really is a very smart way of using science to explore the world.
感谢加入我们!
Thanks for joining us!
如果你还有更多关于潜水艇
If you have more questions about submarines,
或者探索海洋方面的问题
or exploring the oceans, or anything at all,
你可以把这些问题发到我们的网站上!
we have a website where you can send themto us!
只是让一个大人帮你登录并访问一下patreon.com/scishowkids
Just ask a grown-up to help you go to patreon.com/scishowkids to check it out.
如果你是成年人
And if you are a grown-up,
在你支持我们的Patreon主页和节目的同时
our Patreon page is also a place where you can support this
也可以帮助我们制作像这样既有趣又有教育意义的视频
show and help us making fun, educational videoslike this one.
我们下期还在这个堡垒中见吧!
We’ll see you next time, here at the Fort!
[结尾乐]
[ OUTRO ♩ ]

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视频概述

本视频以幽默风趣的方式简洁明了地讲述了潜水艇的工作原理,并涉及到生活中的科普小知识,有助于少年儿童理解科学,激发兴趣,成为成长路上的有效助力。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Martin

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3W937dORLI

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