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雪花的形成 – 译学馆
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雪花的形成

How Do Snowflakes Form?

任何事物中都存在化学原理
Chemistry is in everything, including snow.
包括雪的形成
结晶学让我们了解雪花凝结中
Crystallography allows us to studythe arrangement of atoms
原子之间的排列构造
in a snowflake crystal.
尽管它们成形条件相同
Though they all pretty much start the same,
但一旦开始结晶
once they begin crystallizing,
就不会形成两片一模一样的雪花
it’s true that no two snowflakes are alike.
各种各样的形状都有可能形成
And the number of possibleshapes is staggering.
反应简介
[Reactions Splash Intro]
雪花的形成始于云层中漂浮的晶粒
A snowflake starts as a dust grainfloating in a cloud.
空气中的水蒸气
Water vapor in the
吸附在尘粒上 其上的水滴凝结成冰
air sticks to the dust grain and the resulting droplet turns directly into ice.
水滴逐渐凝固形成晶面 然后
Crystal faces appear on the frozen droplet. Then,
慢慢形成了一个六棱冰柱
a prism forms with six faces and a top and bottom.
在每个棱柱面上会形成凹陷 这是因为边缘结晶的生成速率最快
A cavity forms in each prism face because ice grows fastest near the edges.
在拐角处的结晶生成速率较快 因此首先生成了六个晶枝
Faster growth on the cornerscauses six branches to sprout.
每个晶枝上的线纹是由冰棱的凸脊和凹槽交错形成
The lines in each branch are due to ridges and grooves on the surface.
这六个晶枝形成了六边形的棱边
These six branches form the corners
这是由于水分子
of a hexagon, which occurs because the water
在结晶中形成了化学键
molecules chemically bondinto a hexagonal network.
当温度降至-13摄氏度(9华氏度)时
When the temperature coolsto -13 degrees C (9F), new
晶枝顶端就会形成新的细窄的晶枝
growth at the branch tips narrows.
在-14摄氏度(6华氏度)时 每个晶枝继续分支
At -14 degrees (6F), side branchessprout on each branch. Suddenly,
处于冷空气中的雪花晶体
the crystal encounters a quick blast
迅速接触到暖空气
of warmer air followed by cooler air,
导致越来越多的侧枝生成
and more side branches sprout.
晶体温度逐渐升高 使得枝端变得窄长
The crystal gradually warms, makingthe tips long and narrow.
结晶体进入更暖的空气后
The crystal encounters into evenwarmer air, which slows
其生长变缓且枝端变宽
the growth and widens the tips. Finally,
最终精美独特的雪花
this unique and delicatestructure falls to the earth along
随着其他数不尽的雪花,一起散落在地面上
with countless other snowflakes. Cool,
很酷 不是吗?
right?
多年以来 结晶学家们把雪花晶体
Over the years, crystallographers havebeen classifying snow crystals into
根据它们原子排列的不同分成了不同种类
different categories based ontheir arrangement of atoms (column,
(柱状 盘状 团聚状 框状 菌状 不规则状 及其他形状)
plane, aggregation,rimmed, germs, irregular, other).
在20世纪30年代
In the 1930s,
雪花被分成了21种不同的类型
there were 21 different classifications of snowflake could be in,
但是截至2013年 分类的数量已经飙升到121种了
but by 2013 that number hassoared to 121 categories.
为了观察雪花晶体的微观结构
To see the snow crystals at the molecular level,
科学家通常会发射一束X光
scientists send a beam of
穿透雪花的样品
x-rays through a samples of snowflakes.
X光被所有雪花中的原子反射后
The X-rays bounce off all the atoms
朝着所有不同的方向发散
in the snowflake and head in all
就像舞厅的闪光灯球
different directions, sort of like light off all the sides
四散反射
of a disco ball.
通过观察光线消失的地方
By seeing where these beams end up,
我们能整理出雪花中的原子是以
we can figure out what arrangement
怎样的排列存在的
the snowflake’s atoms are in,
从而能在原子水平看到它们的形状
and therefore what it looks like at the atomic level.
谁又能断言2016年里,下一个发现的新晶形将会分到哪一类呢
Who ’ s to say what new snowflake categories crystallographers will find in 2016.
有一件事情是肯定的 不断变化的环境会导致雪花
But one thing’s for certain, the ever-changingenvironment means that snowflakes
产生各种令人称奇的各种形状排列
can have a mind-boggling array of shapes.
我们正在做一个观众意见调查活动 所以请务必
We’re doing an audience surveyright now, so be sure
注意下方网址链接
to check the description for the link.
我们非常想听听你们的意见
We really want to hear from you guys,
想知道在接下来的有关反应的节目里
and hear more about what you want to
你们想看到什么
see in upcoming Reactions episodes.
非常感谢
Thanks very much!
你知道该做什么
You know what to do.

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视频概述

本视频介绍了关于雪花的形成原理,为什么雪花会形成六边形,以及科学家是如何观测雪花形状的

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6zr2eLpduI

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