ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

止痛片是什么原理? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

止痛片是什么原理?

How Do Pain Relievers Work?

假如你在沙滩上,眼睛里进了沙子
Say you’re at the beach, and you get sand in your eyes.
你怎么知道有沙子呢?
How do you know the sand is there?
很明显你是看不到的,但是如果你是一个正常健康的人,
You obviously can’t see it, but if you are a normal, healthy human,
你能感受到它。
you can feel it,
那种极度不舒服的感觉,也称为疼痛。
that sensation of extreme discomfort, also known as pain.
疼痛要你採取行動
Now, pain makes you do something,
这时,你要沖洗眼睛,直到沙子消失
in this case, rinse your eyes until the sand is gone.
你如何知道沙子已经消失了呢?
And how do you know the sand is gone?
当然是因为不痛了。
Exactly. Because there’s no more pain.
也有些人他们感受不到疼痛
There are people who don’t feel pain.
这听上去很酷,但事实并非如此
Now, that might sound cool, but it’s not.
如果你感受不到疼痛,你就会受伤
If you can’t feel pain, you could get hurt, or even hurt yourself
而不自知。
and never know it.
疼痛是你身体最早的警告系统
Pain is your body’s early warning system.
它帮你抵御外界以及你自己的侵害
It protects you from the world around you, and from yourself.
随着我们长大,疼痛感受器遍布我们全身
As we grow, we install pain detectors in most areas of our body.
這些感測器是特殊的神經細胞
These detectors are specialized nerve cells
稱為「痛覺感受器」
called nociceptors
它们从你的脊髓延伸出来到你的皮肤,肌肉,关节,
that stretch from your spinal cord to your skin, your muscles, your joints,
牙齿以及一些其他的内部器官。
your teeth and some of your internal organs.
和其他的神经细胞一样,他们发出电信号
Just like all nerve cells, they conduct electrical signals,
从它们所在的位置反馈信息给大脑
sending information from wherever they’re located back to your brain.
但是,与其他神经细胞不同
But, unlike other nerve cells,
伤害感受器只在可能导致
nociceptors only fire if something happens that could cause
或者正在导致伤害时发出警报。
or is causing damage.
当碰到针头时
So, gently touch the tip of a needle.
你会感受到那个金属,这些都是常规的神经细胞反应
You’ll feel the metal, and those are your regular nerve cells.
但是你不会感到任何疼痛
But you won’t feel any pain.
但你越用力推針尖
Now, the harder you push against the needle,
越接近痛覺感受器的閾值[br](譯註:閾值指的是生物上產生神經脈衝的門檻。)
the closer you get to the nociceptor threshold.
推到一定程度时,就越过了阈值
Push hard enough, and you’ll cross that threshold
痛觉感受器发出警报
and the nociceptors fire,
告诉你需要停止正在做的事
telling your body to stop doing whatever you’re doing.
但是疼痛阈值并不是一成不变的。
But the pain threshold isn’t set in stone.
当然某些化学物质可以调整痛觉受器,降低疼痛的阈值。
Certain chemicals can tune nociceptors, lowering their threshold for pain.
当细胞受损,他们和其他附近的细胞
When cells are damaged, they and other nearby cells
開始瘋狂生產這些調節化學物質
start producing these tuning chemicals like crazy,
降低痛覺感受器的門檻,直到
lowering the nociceptors’ threshold to the point
接触可以引起疼痛的地方。
where just touch can cause pain.
这就是非处方止痛药。
And this is where over-the-counter painkillers come in.
阿斯匹靈和布洛芬
Aspirin and ibuprofen
阻止这些类化学物质的产生,
block production of one class of these tuning chemicals,
叫做前列腺素。
called prostaglandins.
让我们看一看他们是如何做到这一点。
Let’s take a look at how they do that.
当细胞受损,他们释放一种叫花生四烯酸的化学物质。
When cells are damaged, they release a chemical called arachidonic acid.
有兩種酵素 COX-1 和 COX-2
And two enzymes called COX-1 and COX-2
转化四烯酸生成肾上腺素H2
convert this arachidonic acid into prostaglandin H2,
然后转换成一堆其他化学物质
which is then converted into a bunch of other chemicals
做很多的事情,
that do a bunch of things,
包括提高你的体温,引起炎症
including raise your body temperature, cause inflammation
和更低的疼痛阈值。
and lower the pain threshold.
现在,所有的酶活性部位。
Now, all enzymes have an active site.
酶反应发生的地方在
That’s the place in the enzyme where the reaction happens.
COX-1和cox – 2的活跃位点上
The active sites of COX-1 and COX-2
适合花生四烯酸。
fit arachidonic acid very cozily.
正如您可以看到的,没有多余的空间。
As you can see, there is no room to spare.
现在,阿司匹林和布洛芬在这个活跃位点做他们的工作。
Now, it’s in this active site that aspirin and ibuprofen do their work.
所以,他们以不同的方式工作。
So, they work differently.
阿司匹林就像一只豪猪的脊柱。
Aspirin acts like a spine from a porcupine.
进入活动位点然后脱落,
It enters the active site and then breaks off,
留下一半
leaving half of itself in there,
完全阻塞通道,使其不可能
totally blocking that channel and making it impossible
影响花生四烯酸。
for the arachidonic acid to fit.
这使COX-1和cox – 2永久丧失活力。
This permanently deactivates COX-1 and COX-2.
布洛芬,另一方面,
Ibuprofen, on the other hand,
进入活性部位,
enters the active site,
但不分解或改变酶。
but doesn’t break apart or change the enzyme.
COX-1和cox – 2是自由吐出,
COX-1 and COX-2 are free to spit it out again,
但对布洛芬的时候,
but for the time that that ibuprofen is in there,
花生四烯酸的酶不能绑定,不能做正常的化学。
the enzyme can’t bind arachidonic acid, and can’t do its normal chemistry.
但阿司匹林和布洛芬怎么知道痛在哪里吗?
But how do aspirin and ibuprofen know where the pain is?
好吧,他们不知道。
Well, they don’t.
一旦藥物進入血液中
Once the drugs are in your bloodstream,
他们在整个你的身体,
they are carried throughout your body,
和他们去痛苦的区域一样正常。
and they go to painful areas just the same as normal ones.
这就是阿司匹林和布洛芬是如何工作的。
So that’s how aspirin and ibuprofen work.
但也有其他的疼痛。
But there are other dimensions to pain.
例如,神经性疼痛
Neuropathic pain, for example,
这种痛苦会损坏我们的神经系统
is pain caused by damage to our nervous system itself;
外面不需要任何形式的刺激。
there doesn’t need to be any sort of outside stimulus.
科学家发现,大脑控制
And scientists are discovering that the brain controls
我們對疼痛信號的反應
how we respond to pain signals.
例如,多少痛苦你可以承受
For example, how much pain you feel can depend on
你是否注意到疼痛,甚至你的情绪。
whether you’re paying attention to the pain, or even your mood.
疼痛是一个活跃的研究领域。如果我们能更好地理解它,也许我们可以帮助人们更好地管理它。
Pain is an area of active research.If we can understand it better, maybe we can help people manage it better.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mcuIc5O-DE

相关推荐