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为什么肌肉会增大?(了解原理增肌有望) – 译学馆
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为什么肌肉会增大?(了解原理增肌有望)

How Do Muscles Actually Get Bigger?

大家好 艾米在DNEWS为您解答关于肌肉的问题
Hey guys, Amy here on DNews answering your questions about muscles!
涅科最近问我们为什么在锻炼时肌肉会变大 他想让我们做一个关于这个的视频
Neko recently asked us if we can make a video about why our muscles grow big when we exercise.
我们都想变得又高又壮
We all want to get big and strong, building muscles to have lean bodies and to be able
并且还能够把蹲举我们的同事当成乐趣
to squat our coworkers for funsies.
但事实上当你在锻炼时 到底是什么让你的肌肉得到成长呢?
But what actually happens when you workout that makes your muscles grow?
关于肌肉的事实可能超乎你的想象
There’s more to muscles than you might think.
人类拥有多种不同的肌肉: 心肌 平滑肌和骨骼肌
We have different types of muscles: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles.
平滑肌负责控制中空器官收缩运动
Smooth muscles are responsible for the contracting movements of hollow organs like blood vessels,
比如血管 胃肠道 膀胱和子宫
the gastrointestinal tract, bladder, and uterus.
骨骼肌由单个的肌纤维束组成
Skeletal muscles are made up of bundles of individual muscle fibers that are themselves
它们本身就是一股股彼此缠绕并相互拉动的蛋白质
strands of proteins that grab onto one another and pull.
这些肌肉附着在骨骼上 是收缩和拉动
These muscle are attached to bones, and it’s the contraction, that pulling, that causes
使你的骨头在你的关节周围移动
your bones to move around your joints.
这就是当你肌肉在收缩时会发生的事情
That’s what happens when your muscles contract.
这些是由躯体神经系统控制的
These are controlled by the somatic nervous system.
心肌是非自主控制的
The cardiac muscle, the one that makes your heart pump blood throughout your body, is
它让你心脏为全身泵血
involuntarily controlled.
很显然你的心脏和控制它的肌肉
Your heart and the muscles that control it are obviously an important part of working
是能够工作或运动的关键 但当我们谈论锻炼肌肉时
out or playing sports, but when we’re talking about building muscles we need to focus on
我们应该关注骨骼肌
skeletal muscles.
骨骼肌不仅仅是由纤维组成
There’s a little more to skeletal muscles than just the fibers that make them up.
肌肉大致分为两种类型
Muscle are broadly categorized into two types.
第一种类型或可称为慢颤肌能更有效地利用氧气产生能量
Type I or slow twitch muscles are more efficient at using oxygen to generate energy.
顾名思义 它们在用尽能量前可以工作更长时间
And as the name suggests they can work longer before being exhausted so these are the ones
所以它们被用来应付耐力运动 比如长跑
that you use for duration sports like long distance running.
第二种类型或可称为快缩肌依靠无氧代谢创造燃料 更简单来说
Type II or fast twitch muscles rely on anaerobic metabolism to create fuel, or more simply,
它们利用你身体储存能量以此来应付爆发类运动
they use your body’s stored energy for shorts bursts of activity.
这些都是被你的身体用来应付短跑或举重的
These are the ones your body uses when sprinting or weightlifting.
你以为是创造肌肉 然而实际上是打破这些肌肉纤维
When you build muscle, you’re actually breaking down these muscle fibres and building them
并重新复原它们
back up.
有好几个方法来做这件事
There are a couple of ways to do this.
过度增大是指肌肉的大小随肌肉纤维大小的增加而增加
Hypertrophy is an increase in the size of the muscle due to an increase in the size
虽然增生发生时 你实际是在撕裂并制造更多肌肉纤维
of the muscle fibers; while hyperplasia happens when you actually split muscle fibers to eventually
虽然一些教练怀疑 这种分裂实际上并未创造新的纤维
grow more of them, though some trainers suspect that this splitting doesn’t actually create
它只是改变了现有的纤维
new fibers, it just changes existing ones.
肌肉生长的确切过程还不完全清楚但是先进理论认为
The exact process of muscle growth isn’t entirely understood, but leading theories
举起某些重物 类似于此的力量会撕裂肌肉纤维
say that lifting something heavy, like a weight, breaks the muscle fibers apart, and then those
然后那些纤维以某种方式复原 这使它们能够弥补之前的伤害
fibers grow back in a way that allows them to compensate for the damage and protect themselves
和预防以后可能的伤害
against future damage.
这是很自然的情况 但速度周期的提升 使你能更快重建肌肉
This happens naturally, but lifting speeds the cycle up so you rebuild muscle faster,
并且受到的伤害越大 生成的肌肉也越多
and the more you breakdown the more you grow back!
这就是为什么锻炼完后需要休息你需要给身体时间来自我修复
Which is why you need to rest between workouts; you need to give your body time to repair
并在休息过程中摄入蛋白质
itself, and help that process along with protein.
这就是肌肉的来源
And that’s where the increase to muscles comes from.
各位 你们是否已经了解或还是不太明白呢?
So does this clear things up or do you still have more questions about muscles?
欢迎在下方评论或推特@DNews让我们知晓
Let us know in the comments below or on Twitter @DNews.
最后 如果想获取更多关于DNews的信息 请别忘了订阅哦
And of course, for more DNews every single day of the week, don’t forget to subscribe!

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