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狮子的吼声为什么这么大 – 译学馆
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狮子的吼声为什么这么大

How do lions generate such a powerful roar? 🦁 | Big Animal Surgery - BBC

为了了解狮子是如何发出吼声的
To discover how lions produce their roar,
我们的团队前往开普敦附近的冈瓦纳野生动物保护区
our team travelled to GondwanaGame Reserve near Cape Town.
在这里发现的许多野生动物中有几头狮子
Amongst the many wild animals foundhere are several lions.
当它们吼叫时
And when they roar…
八公里以外都能听到它们的声音
..they can be heard as far as eight kilometres away.
生物学家克雷格·帕克教授即将进行一项实验
Biologist Professor Craig Packer is about to conduct an experiment
该实验将有助于弄清
that will help to unravel exactly
狮子是如何发出如此强有力的声音的
how the lion produces such a powerful sound.
他的首要任务就是找到狮子
His first task is to locate the lions.
克雷格 你追踪狮子的方法是什么?
What’s your strategy for tracking them, Craig?
我们已经在保护区找到了三头成年狮子
We’ve got three adult lions on the reserve.
一头成年雄狮 两头成年雌狮 它们都有领圈
One adult male, two adult females,and they’re all collared.
协助克雷格的是冈瓦纳的约诺·贝里
Assisting Craig is Gondwana’sJono Berry.
好的
OK.
我们在雄狮身上收到了一个强烈的信号
We’ve got a beautiful signal on the male there.
对 就是那个方向
Ok. So that’s the direction.
车停这里
Pull in here.
很好它就在那边的路上
Excellent. OK.So there he is, on the road.
在找到那头落单的雄狮以后
After locating the lone male,
约诺和克雷格把一个扬声器放在地上
Jono and Craig place a loudspeaker on the ground…
然后他们回到车辆的安全地带
..and retreat to the safety of their vehicle.
它是保护区里唯一的雄狮吗
So, he’s the only male in the reserve here?
它是我们目前唯一的成年雄狮
He’s the only adult male that we have on the property at the moment.
从来没有其他动物向它挑衅
And he’s never been challenged.
它从来都是这里动物的首领
He’s always been the big boss.
所以它有点自负
So he’s a little overconfident.
通过使用扬声器
Using the speaker,
克雷格要放一段另一头雄狮吼叫的录音
Craig is going to play a recording of another male lion’s roar.
所以当我们播放吼声时 它会有些震惊
So this should be quite a shock when we play him that roar.
它会吓死的
He’s going to get the fright of his life.
他也会捕捉到狮子的反应
He’ll also capture the lion’s response.
我很确定它会站起来查看
I’m pretty sure he’s going to get up to investigate
希望我们能听到它大声的吼叫
and hopefully we’re going to get a loud roar coming out of him
当它走过去“宣布”
as he walks along announcing,
“这里是我的领地 你给我滚出去”
“This land is my land. You get out of here.”
好的 那么 让我们试试
Ok, well, let’s give it a go.
好的 我们试试
OK. Let’s go.
一听到录音 狮子立即行动起来
On hearing the recording, the lionimmediately springs into action.
它回应道……
He responds…
用它自己的吼声
..with some roars of his own…
并且出发寻找入侵者
..and sets off in search of the intruder.
在一些专业软件的帮助下
With the help of some specialist software,
克雷格对他刚录的声音进行了分析
Craig analyses the roars he’s just recorded.
他的数据显示出一些非常有趣的事情
His data shows something very interesting.
吼声的频率会改变
The roars change frequency.
我们这里有一个吼声元素
What we have here is a roar element.
吼声从非常低的频率开始
It starts out very low frequency,
升到最高
comes up higher
最后又回到最低的频率
and comes back down to the lowest frequency at the very end.
上上下下 上上下下
Up and down, up and down.
这就像拿一个便士哨子
So this is like taking one of these little penny whistles here
然后
and…
拖长音室 降低音高
..lengthening the sound chamber,lowering the pitch.
这种频率或音调的下降
This drop in frequency or pitch
是狮子如何发出吼声的线索
is a clue to how lions produce their roar.
所以 生理学上最惊人的事情之一
So, physiologically one of the striking things
就是它们有一种特殊的发声装置
is that they have a specialsound-making apparatus.
最近人们发现
Recently it’s been discovered that
喉头与胸腔相连的位置
the larynx is attached to the ribcage
比其他哺乳动物低得多
at a much lower level than other mammals.
像所有哺乳动物一样
Like all mammals,
狮子的喉咙是由几条连接胸腔的肌肉控制的
a lion’s larynx is controlled by several strips of muscle that connect it to the ribcage.
但在其他动物身上
But while in other animals,
这些带状肌肉相对较短
these strap muscles are relatively short,
而在狮子身上则要长得多
in lions they are much longer.
这些带状肌肉连接到人类的喉部
These strap muscles attach to the human larynx,
在我们的上肋骨上
up at our top rib.
但是对于狮子和老虎之类的
But for the lions and tigers, etc,
大概在第三或第四根肋骨下面
it’s down about the third or fourth rib.
增加的长度是至关重要的
This increased length is vital.
人们认为当狮子吼叫时
It’s thought that when a lion roars…
它细长的带状肌肉使喉头
..its elongated strap muscles enable the larynx to be pulled
能被拉到气管深处
far down into the windpipe.
喉头和嘴之间的额外距离
And this extra distance between the larynx and mouth…
使得狮子低沉的吼声
..is what allows the lion’s deep-throated roar
能够传播到如此遥远的地方
to carry over such vast distances.
猫有几种主要的世系
There are several major lineages of cats,
其中包括家猫
and the one that includes the domestic cat,
当然 它会喵喵叫 但不会吼叫
of course, can meow but it can’t roar.
有些来自拉丁美洲的猫会爬树
There are cats from Latin Americathat climb trees
它们也不会吼叫
and again, they don’t roar.
只有在豹属中
It’s only in the genus Panthera,
包括狮子 老虎 美洲虎和豹
that includes the lion, the tiger, the jaguar and the leopard,
才有能力吼叫
that is capable of roaring.
喉部的进化适应 形成了一种明显的特征
An unmistakable trait made possible by the evolutionary adaptation of the larynx.

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